You can edit the text in this area, and change where the contact form on the right submits to, by entering edit mode using the modes on the bottom right. De ontwikkeling van de vormgeving van zowel oude als moderne boeken staat daarbij centraal. At the top of each page there are two illustrations; four can be seen when the book lies open. One of the pictures represents an event from the New Testament, while the other three depict Old Testament stories. This late medieval work has come down to us in various languages and formats: in manuscript, as a block book and in letterpress printed editions. Until the late 19th century it was thought that block printing — the technique of printing texts from wooden blocks into which the letters are carved — was a precursor of the art of printing, i.
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The Speculum Humanae Salvationis or Mirror of Human Salvation was a bestselling anonymous illustrated work of popular theology in the late Middle Ages , part of the genre of encyclopedic speculum literature , in this case concentrating on the medieval theory of typology , whereby the events of the Old Testament prefigured, or foretold, the events of the New Testament.
The original version is in rhyming Latin verse, and contains a series of New Testament events each with three Old Testament ones that prefigure it. It is one of the most common books found as an illuminated manuscript , and also in early printing in both blockbook and incunabulum forms.
After a short Prologue two pages and Prohemium four , both unillustrated, the first two chapters deal with the Creation, the Fall of Satan , the story of Adam and Eve and the Deluge in four pages. Then follow forty more double-page chapters where a New Testament event is compared with three from the Old Testament , with four pictures each above a column of text.
Usually each chapter occupies one two page opening. In all a complete standard version has fifty-two leaves, or pages, and illustrations including a blank page at the beginning and end. The blockbook editions were much shorter, with pictures, two to a woodblock. The writing of the text follows an exact scheme: twenty-five lines per column, with two columns per page, one under each miniature, so a hundred lines per standard chapter. Sometimes there are captions over the pictures as well, of varying content.
Many copies reduced the original text, often by omitting the non-standard chapters at the beginning or end, whilst others boosted the content with calendars and commentaries, or extra illustrations. The work originated between , as a reference to the Pope being at Avignon indicates, and , the date on two copies. The first versions are naturally in illuminated manuscript form, and in Latin.
Many copies were made, and several hundred still survive over in Latin alone , often in translations into different vernacular languages; at least four different translations into French were made, and at least two into English. There were also translations into German, Dutch, and Czech. Manuscript versions covered the whole range of the manuscript market: some are lavishly and expensively decorated, for a de luxe market, whilst in many the illustrations are simple, and without colour.
In particular, superb Flemish editions were produced in the 15th century for Philip the Good and other wealthy bibliophiles. The Speculum is probably the most popular title in this particular market of illustrated popular theology, competing especially with the Biblia pauperum and the Ars moriendi for the accolade.
In the 15th century, with the advent of printing , the work then appeared in four blockbook editions, two Latin and two in Dutch, and then in sixteen incunabulum editions by The blockbooks present unique questions as only editions of this work combine hand-rubbed woodcut pages with text pages printed in movable type. Further eccentricities include a run of twenty pages in one edition which are text cut as a woodcut, based on tracings of pages from another edition printed with movable type.
Though the circumstances of production of these editions are unknown, two of the editions are in Dutch and the Netherlands was probably the centre of production, as with most blockbooks. The incunabulum editions, from eleven different presses, mostly, but not all, printed their woodcut illustrations in the printing press with the text.
Some seem to have been printed in two sessions for texts and images. Even if the Coster story is ignored, the work seems to have been the first printed in the Netherlands, probably in the early s. The images in the Speculum were treated in many different styles and media over the course of the two centuries of its popularity, but generally the essentials of the compositions remained fairly stable, partly because most images had to retain their correspondence with their opposite number, and often the figures were posed to highlight these correspondences.
Many works of art in other media can be seen to be derived from the illustrations; it was for example, the evident source for depictions for the Vision of Augustus in Rogier van der Weyden 's Bladelin Altarpiece and other Early Netherlandish works.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Hind, Arthur M. Mayor, A. Hyatt Wilson, Adrian , and Joyce Lancaster Wilson A Medieval Mirror. Berkeley: University of California Press. Categories : 14th-century Latin books Printmaking Incunabula Catholic theology and doctrine Types of illuminated manuscript.
Speculum humanae salvationis
For almost four centuries, the Speculum Humanae Salvationis was the most popular spiritual guide for Christians in most of Europe it was even called liber laicorum , the lays' book. Even if its scope was much more limited in the Iberian Peninsula than in Central Europe, it had a very powerful influence on the spiritualist literature and the sacred iconography until very recent times. Salamanca: CM Editores , This facsimile edition reproduces only fols. Due to publishers' policies, some prices can't be displayed online, however we can answer to direct enquiries. Contact us now!
The illustrations are deployed across openings, the verso showing an episode from the New Testament the so-called anti-type and the facing recto presenting three scenes from the Old Testament type. In the pictorial sense as well as in their content the episodes of the Old correspond to those of the New Testament, they 'pre-figure' it. The text comprises 45 chapters beginning with the Fall of Lucifer, continuing to the Creation of Man and the Flood, while the main portion of the text gives an account of the Salvation of Man through Christ and culminates in the Last Judgement. Scenes from the life of the Virgin precede the Incarnation of Christ.
Lyon - BM-ms. A preface, probably from the original manuscript, states that the author did not identify himself out of humility, though numerous suggestions of authorship have been made. The original version was in rhyming Latin verse, describing a series of New Testament events, each of which was prefigured by three Old Testament events. Almost all the copies were illustrated, following the pattern of the manuscripts dated , but from an exemplar that was probably lost. There were four blockbook editions two in Latin and two in Dutch , and sixteen editions printed from movable type by The influence of the typological text and illustrations of the latter can be seen in the fourteenth-century stained glass windows of churches at Mulhouse , Colmar , Rouffach , and Wissembourg.