Language: English German. The cleaning and disinfection of surfaces in hospitals is becoming increasingly important in the multi-barrier approach for preventing infection, in addition to hand hygiene and proper reprocessing of medical devices. Because of great need for improvements, this monitoring was repeated in The data are presented in comparison to those in Methods: All 16 hospitals provided information on the quality of structure.
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Language: English German. The cleaning and disinfection of surfaces in hospitals is becoming increasingly important in the multi-barrier approach for preventing infection, in addition to hand hygiene and proper reprocessing of medical devices.
Because of great need for improvements, this monitoring was repeated in The data are presented in comparison to those in Methods: All 16 hospitals provided information on the quality of structure. Data on quality of process was obtained through direct observation during cleaning and disinfection of rooms and their bathrooms.
Data on quality of result was acquired using the fluorescence method, i. The results are compared to those of the 17 hospitals monitored in , before the closing of one of the hospitals.
Results: Quality of structure [data from ]: In all hospitals, the employees were trained regularly. Conclusion: Compared to , a clear improvement were seen in , especially in the qualification of the foremen and in terms of clearly defining the interface between cleaning and care services as well as the quality of process and outcome.
Good hygiene is crucial for the prevention of infections and pathogen transmission in the hospital. With more older, multimorbid patients and shorter hospital stays, more invasive methods in diagnostics and therapy, and more medical devices, the risk of infections has increased during the past years. Cleaning and disinfection of surfaces in the hospital is becoming increasingly important in the multi-barrier approach for preventing infection, in addition to hand hygiene and proper reprocessing of medical devices.
With new publications available, previous controversial discussions [ 1 ] as to the role of surface disinfection have declined. The relevance of surface disinfection is being increasingly accepted. In their review, Gebel at al. It is undisputed that environmental disinfection is necessary in certain risk areas and in outbreak situations.
It is widely acknowledged that proper use of disinfectants contributes to the control of pathogens in outbreak situation as part of a bundle strategy.
In the meantime, several national guidelines and recommendations have become available [ 3 ], [ 4 ]. In Germany, the national Hospital Hygiene and Infection Prevention Commission KRINKO emphasizes the multi-barrier approach, defines surfaces and areas with different transfer risks, and attaches particular importance to the regular and appropriate disinfection of the surfaces with frequent hand and skin contact [ 3 ]. However, the commission does not itself provide any defined training requirements or reference values for the surfaces to be cleaned per unit time.
Requirements for the certification of the service providers and basic training of the managers according to the guidelines of GUV-R and GUV-R have been published [ 6 ], [ 7 ]. Therefore, in , this monitoring was repeated. The data are presented here in comparison to those in Based on the recommendations of the KRINKO and of the DGKH [ 3 ], [ 5 ] the structural, process, and outcome quality of cleaning and disinfection in all Frankfurt hospitals was monitored and compared to the data of In the interim, one hospital has closed, so that in , 16 hospitals and in , 17 hospitals were monitored.
As part of a questionnaire-based survey, data was obtained regarding the qualification of the foreman, staff training and quality control, the interface of the responsibilities of house cleaning and nursing personnel, the work instructions standard operating procedures SOP , the cleaning performance on weekends, and time commissioned for the preparation of a two-bed room as well as a bathroom. The reprocessing of the beds was not the subject of the survey. On the day of the control visit, reprocessing of at least 5 two-bed rooms and bathrooms was monitored in every hospital.
Reprocessing was surveyed by employees of the Public Health Department and recorded in detail, including the time consumed. During the control visit, if and how these points had been removed by cleaning was determined using an ultraviolet flashlight. Complete removal of the mark was scored as two points, partial removal was given one point, and zero points were awarded if the mark was still visible, i.
Table 1 Tab. Compared to , more hospitals provided a plan for cleaning and disinfection with detailed definitions of the tasks of the cleaning service usually all surfaces and nursing care service usually surfaces of medical devices. Two more hospitals had trained their foreman properly and had increased the range of cleaning on Sundays, now covering complete cleaning comparable to normal working days.
Most of the hospitals had implemented internal routine control via fluorescent markers. In Table 2 Tab. However, the performance for the cleaning of the bathrooms was very much lower than commissioned — with no significant differences between and Time commissioned and time required for the reprocessing of surfaces varied widely between the hospitals Figure 1 Fig.
Figure 2 Fig. Compared to , improvements could be seen especially at those sites which had previously been reprocessed insufficiently, i. For monitoring the effect of cleaning and disinfection, the glow-check method was used. When scoring complete removal of the mark as two points and partial removal by one point, in total, Especially in the hospitals with bad compliance in , improvements were demanded and achieved Figure 3 Fig.
Regarding the various marked sites, the best improvements were seen at those points which had been poorly reprocessed in Figure 4 Fig. Hence, the results of the observation for process quality are confirmed. In Table 3 Tab. For comparison reasons, only the full removal of the marks was taken into account. Postal surveys are often carried out on hygiene in hospitals.
These can usually record the structural quality only. Good structural quality i. Good structural quality does not automatically guarantee good process quality.
In the event of staff shortage, illness, frequent personnel changes, and lack of training and control of the employees, the process quality can be insufficient despite good structural quality.
In an earlier study by the Health Office on surface reprocessing in nursing homes, only small and not significant correlations between structural quality on the one hand and process and outcome quality on the other were found [ 18 ].
Therefore, for assessing the quality of hygiene, it is also important to check the process and outcome quality. This was done in the present survey. Before discussing the results, however, the limitations should be addressed. Regarding process quality, detailed observations of the processes were carried out. Whereas the process quality of automatic procedures can be monitored easily by monitoring the technical data, all manual procedures, such as hand hygiene and surface preparation, including manual steps in medical device preparation, must be observed.
Thus, an observer effect cannot to be excluded; on the contrary, such an effect is very probable. Hence, the process quality of surface reprocessing can only be assessed with restrictions. A Hawthorne effect has to be taken into account. The process quality may also be influenced if — in the case of announced examinations of the public health department — only selected personnel is provided, or especially carefully prepared.
The examination of the quality of outcome, defined as the prevention of infections, is virtually impossible, since prevented infections cannot be shown statistically, or at best can only be statistically represented by large numbers of cases. Attributing it to individual factors such as hand hygiene, surface cleaning and disinfection or reprocessing of medical devices is even less feasible. The outcome quality defined as the outcome of processes, e.
For the verification of the surface preparation markings with fluorescent dyes, the ATP test and cultural impact methods are available [ 10 ].
All procedures have their advantages and limitations. Microbiological detection by means of microbiological samples is considered to be the gold standard, but the procedure is expensive and the results are available only after several days.
The ATP method can detect bacterial adenosine triphosphate; it is fast but relatively expensive. The fluorescence method, i. The disadvantage is that the method only shows the quality of the cleaning wiping with pressure and gives no indication of the quality of disinfection.
In control situations as in the present study, the result can theoretically be falsified by the fact that the marked sites were previously known to the employees of the cleaning services or the cleaning personnel themselves checked the markings with a small black light lamp of their own and then cleaned them more intensively.
In summary, the data on structural quality, process quality and outcome quality can be influenced by the institutions surveyed. Process observations are generally subject to observer bias, and all the indicators for quality assessment, including the fluorescence method used in this study, have their methodological limits.
In addition, the inspections carried out by the health office can in principle only reflect the actual moments of inspection. In general, the effect of a single measure, e. This can only be achieved within the scope of a controlled study, if all other hygienic processes hand hygiene, medical product reprocessing, operating procedures, etc. Therefore, the aim of our inspections could not be to achieve a demonstrable effect on the transmission and infection rates in the hospitals.
The aim was to monitor and improve the hygienic process and to raise awareness of the importance of surface preparation. This has been achieved. The clinics improved the quality of the structure training of the foremen, interface plan, increase of the stipulated cleaning performance on weekends and holidays.
Nevertheless, we see further need for improvement. The contractually provided time for the reprocessing of the bathrooms must be increased in general, since in both surveys, in and in , the proper cleaning and disinfection of the bathrooms could not be completed in any clinic within the time commissioned. Additionally, from a hygienic view, complete cleaning restricted to certain days appears incomprehensible and unacceptable.
Significant improvements between and were also achieved in terms of process quality. The critical points were cleaned better, and the improvement was particularly good in those points which had previously been badly reprocessed.
In accordance with the observed process quality, the clinics also improved the quality of the outcome. More marked points were cleaned appropriately, and again, the greatest improvements were obtained in the previously poorly prepared areas. In various other investigations, the quality of the cleaning results measured by the fluorescence method were significantly improved by targeted interventions. In others studies, a decrease in the germ load, for example, with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains [ 13 ], and a reduction of colonizations or infections with multi-drug resistant pathogens [ 22 ], [ 23 ] were demonstrated.
Inadequate cleaning can not only increase the risk of nosocomial infections and colonization with multi-drug resistant pathogens.
Further negative consequences are, for example, damage to the image of the hospital, when patients complain about dirt and insufficient hygiene. According to DGKH cleaning is one of the very few areas that the patient can observe and also assess so that a hospital could profit from a qualified cleaning [ 24 ]. Other possible consequences are legal actions because of infectious disease caused by insufficient cleaning and material damage to furniture and buildings [ 5 ]. The DGKH notes, however, that the great importance of cleaning does not correspond to the fact that the cleaning service only has low social standing and that in the frequently outsourced cleaning companies, untrained employees, low salaries, and frequent job changes dominate.
Against this background, rethinking was demanded of the hospital management, as was qualification of the specialist for hospital cleaning, for instance, and a higher appreciation and estimation of the cleaning service [ 25 ]. Corresponding curricula are already established in France . Within the framework of a bundle strategy, however, not only knowledge and skills must be communicated to the cleaning staff, but feedback must be given on the quality of their work.
Single-Channel Sensors: Q- and M-Series
The spatiotemporal regulation of signalling proteins at the contacts formed between immune cells and their targets determines how and when immune responses begin and end. Therapeutic control of immune responses therefore relies on thorough elucidation of the molecular processes occurring at these interfaces. However, the detailed investigation of each component's contribution to the formation and regulation of the contact is hampered by the complexities of cell composition and architecture. Moreover, the transient nature of these interactions creates additional challenges, especially in the use of advanced imaging technology. Here, we present an in vitro system that makes use of synthetic vesicles that mimic important aspects of immune cell surfaces.
DE202011101596U1 - Track safety device (fixed barrier) - Google Patents
Effective date : Track safety device fixed barrier 1. It serves to protect the workers who move in the area of busy tracks and to prevent unintentional entry on the track. The invention consists essentially of at least two or more cantilevers and at least one barrier field, which is fastened horizontally between two cantilevers. Such track safety devices hard barrier are known several times. These are essentially characterized in that on the one hand they have a horizontal holder. At one end of an attachment to the foot of a rail of a track is provided.
Reconstitution of immune cell interactions in free-standing membranes
Biospherical Instruments offers a variety of small, single-channel radiometers for use in the laboratory; deployment with profilers, CTDs, gliders, floats, and meteorological stations; use in aquaculture and biofuel plants; and for many other marine or terrestrial applications. Monochromatic instruments M-Series measure radiation in a narrow wavelength band, which can be selected from over 25 wavelengths in the UV and visible. Measurement geometries include cosine irradiance , scalar irradiance , and radiance. Depending on the model, measurements are outputted as either a digital data stream, or as "linear analog" or "logarithmic analog" signals. Please consult Sea-Bird for the proper sensor selection. Q- and M-Series single-channel sensors are available in a large number of configurations. The following matrix provides an overview of the most commonly available combinations of features, and the associated model numbers.