Weight, Direction, Top and bottom, Right and left, Balance and the human mind,

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Weight, Direction, Top and bottom, Right and left, Balance and the human mind, Madame Cezanne in a yellow chair, Projections, Which aspect is best? The Egyptian method, u2. Foreshortening, n6. Overlapping, What good does overlapping do? Interplay of plane and depth, Competing aspects, La source, Visual information, Depth by overlapping, Transparency, Deformations create space, Boxes in three dimensions, 26x.

Simple rather than truthful, 27r. Gradients create. Light creates space, 3u. Shadows, The symbolism of light, Interaction of color, Matisse and El Greco, Reactions to color, Warm and cold, This book has been entirely rewritten.

Such a revision may come more naturally to a teacher than to other authors, for a teacher is accustomed to being given another chance every year: to formulate his ideas more clearly, to drop dead weight and add new facts and insights, to improve the arrangement of his material, and in general to profit from the reception his presentation has received. About twenty years ago, the first version of this book was written at a headlong pace. I had to do it in fifteen months if I wanted to do it at all.

It was an exhilarating effort and a very personal one. The friendly reception the book has received may be due in part to this reckless verve of a lightly shod man, uncommon in a systematic work of theoretical exposition. This style was not averse to the mentality of artists and art students who fastened on the visual specifics and caught the general sense pervading the whole.

But even they, I came to feel, would be better served by a more unified organization. And certainly I could do better by the scientists and thinkers who preferred something more systematic. Moreover, the underlying principles were not outlined in my mind two. In the new version I endeavor to show that the tendency toward the simplest structure, the development by stages of.

These principles do not seem to me to have been superseded by more recent developments. On the contrary, my impression is that they are slowly coming into their own, and I hope that a more explicit insistence on their ubiquitous presence will let the reader see the many aspects of shape, color, space, and movement more compellingly as manifestations of one coherent medium. In every chapter some passages have stood the test of time, and if the judgment of my readers agrees at all with mine, they are likely not to miss too many of the formulations to which, as faithful users, they may have become accustomed and perhaps attached.

They may find them, however, at a different point in the chapter or even in a different chapter, and I can only hope that Art may seem to be in danger of being drowned by talk. Rarely arc we. While a sentence here, a whole page there, has been clipped or torn from. This is best accomplished by handling pencils, brushes, chisels, and perhaps cameras. But here again, bad habits and misconceptions will. Often he is helped most effectively by visual evidence: by being shown weak spots or presented with good examples.

Human beings have excellent reasons for talking to one another. I believe this is true also in the. They may assert, first of all, that visual things cannot be conveyed by verbal language. There is a core of truth in this. No description or explanation-whether a secretary's verbal portrait of her employer or a physician's account of a patient's glandular system-can do more. But he knows that there is no such thing as the full representation of an individual instance.

He also knows that there is no need to duplicate what already exists. The artist, too, uses his categories of shape and color to capture something. He is neither intent on matching the unique nor able to do so. To be sure, the outcome of his effort is a uniquely particular object or performance. The world we approach when we look at a picture by Rembrandt has never been presented by anybody else; and to enter this world means to receive the particular mood and character of its lights and shadows, the faces and gestures of its human beings, and the attitude toward life conveyed by it all-to receive it through the immediacy of our senses and feelings.

Words can wait and must wait until our mind distills, from the uniqueness of the experience, generalities that can be grasped by our senses, conceptualized, and labeled. To derive such generalities from a work. Art is the product of organisms and therefore probably neither more nor less complex than these organisms themselves.

It often happens that we see and feel certain qualities in a work of art but cannot express them in words. The reason for our failure is not that we use language, but that we have not yet succeeded in casting those perceived qualities into suitable categories.

Language cannot do the job directly because it is no direct avenue for sensory contact with reality; it serves only to name what we have seen or heard or thought. By no means is it an alien medium, unsuitable for perceptual things; on the contrary,.

It sharpens our vision ble. Another prejudice has it that verbal analysis paralyzes mtu1t1ve creation. The history of the and comprehension. Again there is a core of truth here. Is it not one power of the mind must be suspended so another may funct10n? The delicate which alone permits him to live fully and to work well-is upset n t on.

Groping in vagueness is no more productive than blind adherence to rules. Unchecked self-analysis can be harmful, but so can the. Perhaps the task of living has become more difficult-but there is no way around it. It is the purpose of this book to discuss some of the virtues of vision and thereby to help refresh and direct them. As long as I can remember I have been involved with art, studied its nature and history, tried my eyes and hands.

All seeing is in the realm of the psychologist, and no one has ever discussed the processes. Some art th onsts. On the other side, some psychologists have taken a professional interest in the arts. But it seems fair to say that for the most part they have contributed only marginally to our understanding of what matte.

This is so, first of all,. Or they. Perhaps this caution is well advised because the arts, like any other ob1ect of study,.

Here and there the arts are explicitly mentioned, but what counts. Indeed, something like an artistic vision of reality was. A further limitation of my work is psychological. All aspects of the mind. In the essay that gave gestalt theory its name, Christian von Ehrenfels pointed out that if each of twelve observers listened to one of the twelve tones.

The principles of my psychological thinking and many of the experiments I shall cite below derive from gestalt theory-a psychological discipline, I should probably add, which has no relation to the various forms of psychotherapy that have adopted the name. The word gestalt, the common German noun for shape or form, has been applied since the beginning of our century to a body of scientific principles that were derived mainly from experiments in sensory perception. More specifically, from its beginnings gestalt psychology had a kinship.

The relevance of these views to the theory and practice of the arts is evident. No longer can we consider what the artist does to be a self-contained activity, mysteriously inspired from above, unrelated and unrelatable to other human activities. Instead, we recognize the exalted kind of seeing that leads to the creation of great art as an outgrowth of the humbler and more common activity of the eyes in everyday life. Just as the prosaic search for information is "artistic" because it involves giving and finding shape and meaning, so the artist's conceiving is an instrument of life, a refined way of understanding who and where we are.

As long as the raw material of experience was considered an amorphous agglomeration of stimuli, the observer seemed free to handle it according to his arbitrary pleasure. Seeing was an entirely subjective imposition of shape.


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Arnheim Rudolf- Arte y percepciĆ³n visual


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