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To identify whether public organizations that adopt the competency-based management model consider the collective component of competencies in their management practices.
The academic literature highlights the potential of collective competencies to achieve organizational objectives, but there is a mismatch between the theoretical perspective and people management practices, which was confirmed throughout the study.
The field research was carried out in three federal public organizations. Evidence was collected from documentary analysis and semi-structured interviews with ten employees from the respective Personnel Management areas. There was an isolated presence of attributes and sources of creation of collective competencies, which proved to be insufficient to determine their presence in the organizations under analysis. The business scenario presents an ongoing process of change and renewal.
The competitive environment has been forcing companies to take increasingly strategic actions that focus on the development of products and services that meet market demands. Furthermore, strategies and practices in the field of public administration have been redirected to meet the complex demands of society.
Thus, in the public administration, a transition from the conceptions of what generates the strategic differential is perceived, considering the intellectual capital of the organization as a true ally in the process of generating organizational effectiveness Bergue, This perspective is reflected in a notable change in the role of people management, which departs from a bureaucratic and operational performance to a strategic one, gathering efforts, techniques and tools of human factor management to achieve organizational objectives.
This conception serves as a basis for strategic people management, which can be understood as a systemic alignment of HR practices with the strategy of the organization, providing cohesion to the set of adopted practices.
The competency-based strategic management model allows for the use of people management efforts to plan, capture, develop, and evaluate the competencies that are necessary to meet organizational objectives at the different levels of the organization individual, group and organizational levels. Therefore, the competency-based management model is aligned with the strategic people management, for it is committed to the development of the competencies that are necessary to meet the strategic objectives of the organization.
The competency-based management model is a practice that aims to increase the overall performance of the corporation, whether public or private, by increasing the individual performance of its employees. In the Federal Public Administration, such discussion has acquired significant contours since the publication of Decree No. When seeking an alignment with modern people management practices, the federal public administration assumes that there is an urgent need to modernize its practices.
This orientation raises questions about the real applicability of such management model in the reality of the Brazilian public administration when the specificities of the public sector are taken into account. The PNDP, in much the same way as in the private sector, focuses on individual competencies. It thus replicates the individualized logic of organizational performance and results, putting the social, cultural, and political dynamics of the organization in the background. The competency-based management model assumes that organizational competencies guide the actions that permeate management subsystems - and among them, people management.
However, the emphasis placed on individual competencies by organizations raises questions about the extent to which organizations can articulate the elements of the management model to their full potential or if they use only random practices and tools, thus compromising the proposed strategic effect. These arguments are consolidated as a growing academic development is perceived regarding the collective component of competencies - a factor that is still ignored in the practice of organizations, whose focus is restricted to individual and organizational skills.
Now, knowing that the aspects of organizational culture can influence individual behavior, that the organizational climate brings an impact on the daily life of the organization, and that the constitution of effective work teams can contribute to increase productivity at work, why should so much emphasis be placed on the contributions of the individual to the organization? The gap between organizational discourse, which advocates teamwork, cooperation between peers and sectors of the organization, and management practices, which focus on the individual, reveals an organizational daily life marked by contradictions and polarities.
This study is aligned with the understanding that the functioning of the organization is a result of collective work practices, not only by the sum of individual actions, but also by the association between individuals, areas and functions that serve as a basis for organizational outcomes and results. The question that it attempts to answer is the following: do public organizations that adopt the competency-based strategic management model consider the collective component of competencies in their management practices?
Representatives of people management areas of these institutions were interviewed. Considering that the phenomenon under study is associated with a specific combination of factors and directly related to the context for its development, the attempt was to identify situational characteristics concerning the organizational realities under study, in order to contribute to the vastness of data and subsequent comparison.
The context of rapid changes in the current scenario, marked by the development of new technologies and frequent innovations, generates the need for organizations to respond with agility and efficiency.
The public sector is not exempt from this process, and its adaptation to the context of multiple transformations is increasingly required Bergue, The s are cited by Fonseca, Meneses, Silva and Campos as a significant time in terms of the transformations fostered in public administration in several countries, a time which was marked by the modernization of the public sector and the change in the role of the State.
In the specific case of Brazil, the authors mention that the state reforms followed the managerial perspective according to which management practices prevailing in the private sector were taken as reference and transposed to the public sector in order to promote greater efficiency in the state administration and focus on results.
Focusing on people management in the Brazilian administration, Schikmann states that substantive transformations in public administration would not be feasible if historical aspects were to be left aside. The combination of components such as the legalistic and formal culture in the public administration, cultural traits such as patrimonial assets and individualism when "contrasted with the idealized attributes of professional bureaucracy such as impersonality and merit" will result in a complex environment for people management Schikmann, , p.
It should be noted that a fundamental aspect of the Brazilian public sector management is the presence of two functional bodies with distinct characteristics: a permanent body and a transitory body. The transitory body, however, is formed, for the most part, by workers in commissioned positions and at managerial level. The occupation of these positions follows, as a matter of priority, the logic of political nomination, and there is, in practice, a strong rotation of the people in these positions after each succession of political administrations.
Similarly, Amaral argues that the Brazilian public administration has historically constructed peculiarities and highlights three dimensions that would contribute to the understanding of these characteristics: the hybrid model of public servants' careers, which is a consequence of the alternation of projects throughout the administration; the type of Brazilian Federalism, which emphasizes the autonomy of the powers and the consequent existence of statutes of servants and ways to define permanent workforce and positions of trust, which are distinct in each of the spheres of the government and federated entities, generating disparity of rights, wages and requirements for taking a public office, and the environment in which the administration operates, where social and economic heterogeneity prevails.
These aspects portray different faces of the Brazilian public administration and generate direct implications for People Management in public organizations. Moreover, according to Schikmann , many of these organizations would keep working with the management of personnel rather than with people management itself; that is, activities related to payroll, benefits, proposition of laws, rules, regulations and actions of training and qualification would be the focus of operations.
Far from having a strategic role, HR operations would still be reactive, meeting operational demands and having a strong impact on the adoption and introduction of new policies and management tools. The necessary adjustment of the State to modernization demands requires changes in the public service culture and large-scale actions in order for a strategic operation to be implemented Bergue, According to Amaral , the new policy is in line with modern people management, which would be based on the strategic tripod: management by competencies, democratization of labor relations that foster environments conducive to innovation, and intensive qualification of work teams.
That way, the new policy of people training and development would hold this strategic vision when promoting competency--based management as necessary to the public administration.
However, the Decree alone does not represent the reality of public organizations; it represents the initiative and the establishment of guidelines for its implementation within the federal administration. Despite the strong strategic component in its elaboration, there is still a long way to go until actions are effectively implemented and results can be duly observed in the public sphere as a whole.
Nevertheless, the initiatives to adapt to the PNDP are increasing and growing stronger as public institutions begin to discuss and publicize the effects of the implementation of the competency-based model for people management.
Theoretical contributions and case reports become more representative, revealing the increase in the variety of public organizations that already use or are attempting to implement this model.
The competency-based management model considers the participation of employees as a fundamental aspect to the implementation of the organizational strategy and the development of competitive advantage. Ruas and Silva and Mello point out that socioeconomic factors such as economic instability, low predictability of the company-market and company-client relationship, besides the intensification of customization strategies generate new forms of work organization, transitioning from stability and predictability to a differentiated and fluid condition.
These factors are conducive to the construction and use of the competency notion. Siqueira , however, argues that the development of new forms of management is based on a flexible organizational structure and a better adaptation to the external environment. It is in the above-mentioned context that the discussions about the notion of competency are strengthened and propagated; such discussions are marked by controversies and great conceptual heterogeneity, and even theoretical fragmentation.
The author considers the first view as that of strategic management, related to the application of the concept at the macro level of management, whose essential competencies would be at the core of the discussions. The second would be related to human resource management and its use in the integration of people management subsystems. The third would be related to the sociology of education and work, with emphasis on psychosocial aspects and effects on educational and qualification programs.
Fonseca et al. It is vertical insofar as the organizational strategy serves as a subsidy for the definition of organizational competencies that, in turn, would be deployed in individual competencies. It is horizontal when the alignment of the people management subsystems is considered.
The perspective that is gaining momentum in the current discussions about competencies is that of collective competencies. As highlighted by Silva and Ruas , the interest in collective competencies arises from studies associated with the Resource Based Vision RBV theories that highlight the role of work collectives in organizational performance, developed from Nelson and Winter's seminal work on Organizational Routines OR.
Silva and Ruas , p. Thus, the collective competency is defined as an intermediate component in the functioning of organizations; it is placed between individual competencies at the micro level and organizational competencies at the macro level. In line with the authors mentioned above, Ruas associates the notion of competency with the socioeconomic scenario and the concept of event.
For the author, the collective competencies could refer to a single area of the company, to several areas, to the company as a whole and also to activities between different companies. An important contribution to the debate on the subject is attributed to Le Boterf. The author emphasizes the complexity of the topic and states that the competency of a company or its sectors is not limited to the simple sum of the competencies of its members.
More than that, it is a result of the combination, cooperation and synergy of individual competencies Le Boterf, Michaux states that the concepts of individual, collective and organizational competency are related to different theoretical views, but that the combination of these concepts would allow for the discussion of the existence of a collective capacity within organizations that could help coordination, collective solution of problems, and integration of knowledge and practical knowledge that would be linked to collective performance.
The concept of collective competency is comprehensive; it brings together different cognitive and social cooperative phenomena, which would help the capacity to act and react collectively. According to Michaux , the action deserves to be highlighted because the concept of competency has a dynamic character and involves the mobilization of resources in order to act. The collective competency is then related to the different work groups and social configurations within organizations.
This ability to act collectively would be of a tacit nature and not possible to be replicated since the combination of factors would particularly belong to each collective body, to each organization Grimand, ; Michaux, Michaux highlights four contexts of use of the notion of collective competency: 1.
In a similar vein, Retour and Krohmer discuss the existence of different sources for the creation of collective competencies, distinguishing aspects related to people individual competencies, affective interactions, informal relationships, and cooperation and aspects related to the organization configuration of work groups, formal interactions, management style, and factors associated with people management practices.
The complexity of group production and the articulation of individual knowledge towards a common goal make collective competency a highly relevant subject for people management, especially in the complex context of contemporary work.
The understanding of these intermediate collectivities, between the individual and the organizational system, presents itself with strong potential for the understanding of the organizational dynamics and, especially, for people management.
The selected organizations met the initial criterion of the use of a competency-based management model in their practices of people management and, additionally, the representativeness in the implementation of such model.
When it was impossible to verify the appropriation of the competency-based management model throughout the organization, the areas directly related to the implementation of personnel management were chosen for the fieldwork.
The analysis of the three realities and their respective peculiarities contributed to the richness of the data and subsequent establishment of comparative relations. The data was collected from documentary analysis, from information provided by organizations as well as from public data such as plans, decrees and others. Semi-structured interviews were also carried out with the employees of the personnel management departments in order to identify how organizational practices were articulated with the organizational competencies outlined a priori - through the strategic planning of the organization and survey of the perceptions of the employees on the factors conducive to the emergence of collective competencies.
The interview script was developed based on the investigations carried out by Silva on HR management practices and the process of identification of collective competencies implemented in a credit service cooperative; by Giansante on the relationships between the characteristics of team members, collective competencies and collective performance in a gastronomy technology course, and by Retour and Krohmer , regarding the components and variables conducive to the emergence of collective competencies and attributes and sources that influence their development.
Eighteen items were developed and grouped into six themes: 1. Ten face-to-face interviews were conducted with variable duration between the interviewees. The interviews were recorded and later transcribed with the help of the "Express Scribe" program, which is available for free on the Internet.
The data obtained were analyzed according to the content analysis defined by Bardin , p. Departing from the transcription of the interviews, the resulting content was analyzed to identify the convergence with the categories of analysis outlined a priori, namely, meanings associated with the implementation of the competency-based management model in the organizations, as well as attributes of collective competencies and their sources, as proposed by Retour and Krohmer According to the information collected, first, work functions were mapped according to the particularity of each function based on its attributions, requirements, knowledge, skills, and attitudes required to perform the job.
The mapping of work functions throughout STN was a fundamental input to the first competency-based performance assessment. The technical competencies, which would include the knowledge and skills related to each job function, were defined according to management units, being each manager responsible for specifying the knowledge and skills required to perform each function.
Behavioral competencies were identified according to a behavioral inventory. Subsequently, the competencies related to behavioral indicators were identified, and both these and the technical competencies were associated with the work functions, allowing for the identification of the desired results for each work function and relation with the employee that would perform it.
Approximately a year was needed for the completion of this process and the beginning of the first evaluation cycle of the organization. The practice of the evaluation cycle associated to the discontinuation of the contract with the consulting firm that implemented it made it necessary to review the cycle.
Currently, STN is in the process of designing a system that supports people management and, in addition, is able to supplement the proposed evaluation stage. The management model adopted is being reviewed, especially in relation to the system for the evaluation of performance and the consideration of managerial competencies that are relevant to management.
The UFPB began implementing the Competency-based Management Model in , as a result of the association between the attempt to comply with federal regulations - Decree No. Currently, two out of the four subsystems mentioned are in place: the competency-based training and competency-based performance management.
A nova administração pública e a abordagem da competência