Warnings of strong Al Qaeda resurgence in Pakistan and a wave of terrorist attacks in the country have once again splashed across headlines. The National Intelligence Estimate and the seemingly uncontrollable violence have reinforced the negative perceptions about Pakistan and heightened fears of its decline into Talibanization. But should Pakistan be written off as a Talibanized state just yet? The reality is that while the violence is undoubtedly worrisome, it denotes a threat different from the fearsome possibility of Pakistan becoming Talibanized. With a fully functional state structure and a strong presence of a secular military, the possibility of a violent takeover reminiscent of the Taliban in Afghanistan is out of the question.
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The TTP has also threatened repeatedly and publicly to attack the Pakistani homeland, and consistently claimed responsibility for every suicide and bomb attack in Pakistan.
To that end, the TTP has attacked schools, colleges, mosques, government offices, training centers, and other commons frequented by civilians. However, the underlying causes of the rise of Tribalization have not fully addressed yet. Therefore, the prevailing situation in FATA warrants an in-depth analysis of the problem. This study seeks to fill this knowledge gap by adopting a specific theoretical approach i. Relative Deprivation Theory, Social Exclusion Theory and a mixed qualitative-quantitative research principle.
This study attempts to critically scrutinize the nexus between long-lasting marginalization and the ongoing Talibanization in the tribal belt of Pakistan. And, how it offered breed to antagonism against the long lasting policies of marginalization in FATA? Cassidy, ; Nawaz, ; Martinage, etc. While studies in the second group of extant literature have identified the causes of Talibanization with greater accuracy than the first group, they fall short in providing empirical proof and robust analysis.
Instead, these studies have focused on deteriorating socio-economic impact as an outcome of current Talibanization; however, they have overlooked or provided insufficient factual evidence of historical and political structure of FATA prior to the rise of Talibanization in FATA e. Zahra, ; Khan, etc. The third group of existing scholastic work provides substantial evidence of the underlying causes of Talibanization in certain cases around the world in general.
Stewart, ; Ostby, ; Cederman et at. In the meantime, a Maliki local chief system was also introduced with enabling the colonial government to practice control over the regional tribes.
The core purpose of all those developments to protect the allegiances of powerful components in the territory and enable the colonial government to control over the tribes Howell, , pp.
To attain the subservience of the tribal Pashtuns, British used every available strategy or tool regardless of any respect for humanity, for instance, terrorizing, duplicity, temptation, and bribery. The miseries of the tribal belt were not just caused under the British colonial rule; however, the colonial legacy of injustice continued with insignificant alternations by the post-independence administrations of Pakistan since its inception in It is widely believed that Mr.
Jinnah gave a grave guarantee to the tribes of FATA not to interfere in their internal issues in return for joining Pakistan. In fact, it was ensured that the people of FATA would have equal citizenship rights in as other Pakistani there would not be any interference with tribal autonomy yet integrates FATA into Pakistan. Therefore, the root of the current Talibanization is that the fundamental administrative bodies such as police, judiciary, and public services are not available in FATA.
The administrative system of FATA is a century old. In other words, it is governed by a colonial-era Frontier Crimes Regulation FCR , which gave extensive powers to the federally appointed PAs in tribal agencies. In the absence of judicial system, these handpicked PAs and Maliks and other tribal elites under the Jirga system hear criminal and civil cases of the tribal and make decisions. In reality, the tribal areas are not administrated at all, and the Maliks make no difference.
On the other hand, because of the unrestricted discretionary power set under the control of the Jirga, these Maliks often violets human rights. The common people are despondent by unjust oppressive treatment by Maliks in the absence of any legitimate and remedial system to address people grievances.
The PA is responsible for dealing with internal issues of the tribes and utilizes the financial assets, and controlling inter-tribal trade among agencies or with urbanized territories of Pakistan Haider, , pp. Being central and provincially designated the PAs lookout the administration of the concerned agency with ultimate executive power.
A PA is the head and simultaneously acts as a magistrate in an agency; he has a sole authority to lead Jirga and anytime he can proclaim any choice made by a Jirga as invalid and void. He can force any sort of taxes without any guidance from anyone. On the administrative level, a PA is assumed to be the decisive authority in a tribal agency.
In the present administrative structure, the PA holds the executive, legislative, and judicial functions in an all-powerful authority. This centralization of power to PAs is directed by the FCR, known as the draconian law, has brought about a colossal political and legitimate vacuum which prompted diverse issues as everything in FATA got into mess and the area turned into an authoritatively segregated region Rumi, The prevailing PA administrative set up has been proved ineffective, highly corrupt, and enormously full of nepotism.
Persevering the British legacy, all Pakistani Constitutions ratified the tribal region an extraordinary status with prejudicial authoritative mechanism. However, it does not grant some fundamental civic rights to the general population of the tribal territories. The following listed fundamental human rights are unavailable to the inhabitants of FATA, thus, it can be realized that how FATA and its inhabitants have been treated by discriminatory legal practices in this modern age.
Pashtunwali of the tribal areas with executive powers of the President of Pakistan Tanguay-Renaud, In the absence of courts in FATA, mainly disputes are resolved locally, in the case of serious matters a grand Jirga is organized with inclusion of Maliks, tribal leaders, obviously the PAs, sometime tribal members of upper and lower houses of national legislature, and infrequently representatives from other agencies and settled areas ICG, There are countless victims of such cases, who were inhumanely detained for crimes, which they did not commit even.
As it has been proved that the Pakistan has neglected to give them an acceptable judicial system to deal business, property and family disputes of the people in FATA. Therefore, this gap was filled by the militants. Many respondents of this study witnessed that the TTP after gaining the control of an area in FATA, their first step was to establish a judicial system to provide rapid and cheap justice.
The sole purpose of this law was to control and suppress crimes in the tribal areas and not to provide justice. In other words, the FCR uniquely designed to suppress crims by inflicting the most possible horrendous punishment.
The provision of justice is neither its core nor objective Ali, It does not provide for due process of law, denying to the tribes the right to legal representation or appeal. The most offensive part of his law is the idea of collective punishment, where acts of an individual could lead to collective punishment for the entire tribe. This was classic British bureaucracy; putting the natives in their place Hamdani, The draconian nature of the FCR deprives the tribes of social, political, and economic rights recognized under the International Human Rights laws and the protection of courts Chaudhry, The FCR comprises some special set of laws, which are controversial and entirely inhumane.
For them, there is no conventional legal system available. In reality, liberty is meaningless in FATA aside from statelessness, absence of accountability and the principle of might is right prevails Wazir, However, all the superior courts of Pakistan, which also guarantee the fundamental rights do not have jurisdiction in FATA and the Article its Clause 7 of the Constitution refutes such protection, stating:.
A long-standing democratic deficit and the socio-political marginalization in FATA have formed a constant administrative and political vacuum to be filled by the TTP militants. It has been decades, deliberate structural negligence by the central governments have resulted an unending rise of Talibanization in FATA.
Constantly, the people of FATA have been excluded from their fundamental right of political representation. Under the Limited Franchise system, the common tribal masses were forbidden to vote for their representatives. Thus, the common tribesmen were not allowed to vote in the , , , , , , and general elections due to the Limited Franchise system in FATA Government of Pakistan, The absence of political activities in FATA made a vacuum that gives chances to the persuasive anti-state components to misuse the situation for their agendas.
The study found that the inhabitants of FATA have been victimized socio-politically under both colonial and the post-independence administrations. In other words, the current Talibanization are the effects of a long-lasting historical and political alienation of the tribal areas. It also verified that the colonial British and Pakistani political administrations have neglected and mistreated the tribal region for their own vested interests.
Consequently, the study demonstrates that the enduring discriminative historical and socio-political structure by the colonial and post-colonial administrations has engraved an enduring resentment and feelings of distrust among the tribesmen. In addition, the current Talibanization and violence are causes of continuing discriminative policies of political marginalization, economic deprivation, and socio-cultural indoctrination.
Ali, S. In Tierney, S. Accommodating national identity: new approaches in international and domestic law Vol. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. Andrews, C. Baczko, A. Central Asian Affairs , 1 2 , Cassidy, R. Cederman, L. Inequality, Grievances, and Civil War.
Cambridge University Press. Chaudhry, G. Summary of Amendments to the Frontier Crimes Regulation. FATA Reforms. Government of Pakistan. Parliamentary History-National Assembly of Pakistan.
Constitutions of Pakistan , and National Assembly of Pakistan. Haider, Z. Hamdani, Y. The Express Tribune. Hopkirk, P. Oxford University Press. Howell, E. Human Rights Commission of Pakistan. New Garden Town, Lahore. Building Judicial Independence in Pakistan. Asia Report No. Iqbal, J. IPRI Journal, 11 1 , Johnson, T. No sign until the burst of fire: Understanding the Pakistan-Afghanistan frontier.
Talibanization or Talibanisation is a term coined following the rise of the Taliban movement in Afghanistan referring to the process where other religious groups or movements come to follow or imitate the strict practices of the Taliban. It was first used to describe areas or groups outside of Afghanistan which came under the influence of the Taliban, such as the areas of Waziristan in Pakistan ,    or situations analogous to the Taliban-Al-Qaeda relationship, such as the Islamic Courts Union ICU in Somalia and its harboring of Al Qaeda members, [ citation needed ] or similar harboring of Islamic extremists in Nigeria,   Malaysia,  or Kashmir  and elsewhere around the world, such as Bangladesh. In Bangladesh, the Bangladesh Nationalist Party , the current regime of the country, has been accused of "Talibanizing" the country, especially in their persecution of the Hindu minority . The term was used in a Boston Globe editorial published on November 6, , warning of the emerging threat of the Taliban regime almost two years before the attacks of September 11, Following the takeover of the Gaza Strip in June , Hamas has attempted to implement Islamic law in the Gaza Strip, mainly at schools, institutions and courts by imposing the Islamic dress or hijab on women.
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