How rapidly the taxon can spread and expand its range in California in the absence of management. Infrequent or inefficient dispersal beyond existing populations. Population sizes remain stable. Efficient dispersal occurs locally but population remains within a natural boundary such as a particular water body or natural area surrounded by human development.
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The thrips of the Olive tree, also known as black louse or liotripe of the Olive tree Liothrips oleae Costa is a tycidopterus insect belonging to the Phlaeothripidae family. Morphology — The adult of the Liothrips oleae has a length of about 1. The antennae of this insect are made up of 8 segments. The young nymphs are straw-yellow in color and are very mobile. The buccal apparatus is pungent sucking. Attitude and biological cycle — This tisanottero plays a role of significant agricultural interest due to the considerable damage it often causes to olive crops, especially in Italy, Spain and Greece.
The biological cycle is characterized by the adult that winters in the chapping of the bark, especially the adult olive trees but also in the lesions and scars of the cuts of pruning or in the body of parasitized cochineals. In vintages with particular conditions of high humidity and temperature, the triplex of the olive tree can also perform a fourth generation. Ecological role — The first damages of this insect occur on the softer apical shoots and then spread on the flowers and on the fruits.
The damages, which in certain climatic and agronomic conditions, may be considerable, are due to the trophic bites of both the adult stage and the nymphs. The shoots that have been affected by this trophic activity are characterized by a stunted development and twine on themselves; the leaves take on typical hook shapes and go towards an early fall.
The attacks on the flowers cause abortion and dripping while on the fruit you have the early fall, deformations, hollows and brownish spots. Furthermore, micro-organisms can penetrate inside the bites with further deterioration and aggravation of the damage. In good agronomic conditions and in companies conducted with good criteria of agroecology, the Liothrips oleae is controlled by entomophagous antagonists, among which the Anthocoris nemoralis rincote and the Tretrastichus gentilei hymenoptera ; to avoid, however, sudden increases in population, due to sudden variations in weather conditions, favorable to this insect, careful monitoring must be carried out from the first spring generation.
The interventions to contain this insect mainly concern the need for a good grassing of the olive grove, the presence of hedges and shrubs that can host the antagonists, through pruning in order to thin out the foliage and avoid the settlement of the insect. The specialization of olive groves creates favorable conditions for this insect, so that, in the long run, they become uneconomical and anti-ecological.
In extreme cases you can intervene with products based on pyrethrum permitted in organic farming but it is a practice that must be done with such timing as to damage to a minimum the presence of the entomofauna useful as that of the pollinators and its antagonistic insects. Furthermore, a control of the Fleotribo must be carried out, in the tunnels of which the Tripide finds a safe and easy winter shelter and a suitable place for oviposition.
Sources — Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Agricultural Entomology. Special Part. Liguori Editore, Naples. Applied entomology. Your email address will not be published.
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Liothrips (Liothrips) oleae
Corresponds to a report on the basis of at least one observation proved within a period of 10 years 20 years for little-known invertebrates preceding the year and no presumption of extinction since obtaining the last data nor doubt on reproductive and implemented nature of this population. For migratory species, the presence indicated concerns areas of reproduction. This status is based on one or more of the following criteria: search of species incomplete but presence of supportive environments; ecology of the species consistent with the hypothesis of his presence; the last reliable sighting is older than 10 years compared to the reference date, no recent specific research and no presumption of extinction from that date [vertebrates, invertebrates and plants well studied rhopalocera, grasshoppers, dragonflies This point covers the absence, more difficult by nature to demonstrate than presence. This status is based on one or more of the following criteria: intensive but unsuccessful targeted research; lack of adequate environments; unobserved species while its presence is easily detected; unlikely presence for historical or biogeographical reasons.
Liothrips (Liothrips) oleae (Costa, 1857)
The thrips of the Olive tree, also known as black louse or liotripe of the Olive tree Liothrips oleae Costa is a tycidopterus insect belonging to the Phlaeothripidae family. Morphology — The adult of the Liothrips oleae has a length of about 1. The antennae of this insect are made up of 8 segments. The young nymphs are straw-yellow in color and are very mobile.