GLYCYRRHIZA GLABRA MORPHOLOGY PDF

The plant thrives in a dry and sunny climate and is cultivated in the sub-tropical and warm temperate regions, chiefly in the Mediterranean region. Register Login. Edit Page. The stolon crown gives rise to a number of long semi-woody stems which bear compound pinnate leaves.

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Glycyrrhiza glabra L. Glycyrrhiza brachycarpa Boiss. Li, Glycyrrhiza glabra var. Ponert, Glycyrrhiza glabra var. Sri Lanka : Atimaduram, Valmi Sinhala. According to Hayashi , Hayashi and Sudo , G. Three varieties of G. In China, commercial licorice is produced from the three afore-mentioned species.

Licorice grows well in temperate, warm and sub-tropical climate. It thrives best in well-limed, well-drained, composted, loose, friable, deep soil, preferably in full sun.

Licorice is not bothered by frosts, as it is dormant in winter, and actually benefits by the defined cold period, which induces the translocation of properties to the underground rhizomes. They are easily grown from divisions or root cuttings. Fresh liquorice root when washed is externally of a bright yellowish-brown colour and is chewed fresh or dried as a mouth freshener, for teething in children and also as a tooth cleaner Chiej Dried liquorice root can be chewed as a sweet.

The extract of liquorice in rolls is glossy black in colour, often used in cough lozenges and pastilles. In Calabria a popular liqueur is made from pure liquorice extract. Liquorice is also very popular in Syria and Egypt, where it is sold as a drink, in shops as well as by the street vendors.

Liquorice is used by brewers to flavour and colour porter classes of beers, and the enzymes in the root also stabilize the foam heads produced by beers brewed with it. Licorice powder used in sweets, baked goods, ice cream, soft drinks, etc. The leaves are used as a tea substitute in Mongolia Facciola The licorice root contains glycyrrhizin, a substance that is 50 times sweeter than sucrose Hill ; Facciola ; Bown Glycyrrhizin imparts a sweet taste to foods; moreover, it has salt-softening and flavour-enhancing properties and is also heat stable Hayashi and Sudo Most Japanese people do not like the long-lasting sweet taste of glycyrrhizin; however, a more acceptable sweetness can be created by using a combination of glycyrrhizin and natural sugars or other sweeteners.

Therefore, glycyrrhizin and licorice extracts are used as food additives in a variety of foods such as snacks, instant noodles, sausages and sauces. Glycyrrhizin is used in sweet foods such as sweet snacks, sweets and candies, ice creams and sherbets to enhance their sweetness.

In Japan, enzymatically modified licorice extract a-glycosyl-glycyrrhizin and enzymatically hydrolysed licorice extract glycyrrhetinic acid 3- O -glucuronide are also used as sweeteners Hayashi and Sudo Most liquorice is used as a flavouring agent for tobacco.

Licorice not only imparts a sweet taste but also an aroma of tobacco, which makes it mild Nieman It also prevents the desiccation of tobacco. Licorice extracts were first used for flavouring confectionery products in England during the eighteenth century in Pontefract in Yorkshire; it was blended with sugar, flour and other ingredients to make Pontefract cakes Nieman Nowadays, licorice confectionery is widely available in western countries, and large quantities of licorice are used in the confectionery industry.

Glycyrrhiza glabra root is one of the common traditional Chinese medicines and used as flavouring and sweetening agents for tobaccos, chewing gums, candies, toothpaste and beverages Dong et al. A herbaceous perennial, with stem 0. Leaves imparipinnate, 7—15 cm long with 9—17 ovate-oblong, oblong-lanceolate, or elliptic leaflets 1. Stipules caducous, linear, 1—2 mm. Inflorescence open, racemose, many flowered. Flowers 0. Calyx campanulate, 5—7 mm, 5-toothed, upper 2 teeth mostly joined; corolla purple or pale whitish blue, 9—12 mm, standard ovate or oblong, 1—1.

Fruit oblong, flat, glabrous or sparsely hairy legume, 2—3 cm long, containing 2—8, dark green, smooth seeds, 2 mm across. Licorice is a powerful natural sweetener, 50— times sweeter than sucrose Mukhopadhyay and Panja Fenwick et al. Flavonoids, saponins and sugars were found in the methanol root extract, and sterols in the crude petroleum ether extract Chopra et al.

Alkaloids, proteins and tannins were not detected. The mineral elements found in the roots included K 0. The amount of total phenolics in Turkish G. Eight commercial licorice extracts used as food additive sweetener in Japan were found to contain 0. The roots of G. Denisova et al. The principal component was saccharose Significant quantities of d -mannopyranose 9. The sugar alcohols mannopyranosyl- d -glucitol 3. Rhizomes were reported to contain alkaloids, triterpenes, saponins, flavonoids, polysaccharides, steroids and tannins Meena et al.

An acidic polysaccharide, named glycyrrhizan GA, was isolated from the stolon of Glycyrrhiza glabra var. Its molecular mass was estimated to be 85, and it comprised l -arabinose: d -galactose: l -rhamnose: d -galacturonic acid: d -glucuronic acid in the molar ratio of , in addition to small amounts of O -acetyl groups.

Glycyrrhizan GA, a representative polysaccharide with remarkable phagocytosis-enhancing activity, was isolated from the stolon of Glycyrrhiza glabr a var. Monosaccharide composition of the polysaccharides isolated, measured as alditol acetates, of Chinese and Hungarian G. All investigated samples contained glucuronic acid, the G. Although the yield of Hungarian origin species was found lower than the yield of eastern species, the uronic acid content was similar Kiss et al. The water-extracted arabinogalactan protein enriched fraction of Glycyrrhiza glabra was found to consist mainly of 3- and 3,6-linked galactopyranosyl, and 5- and 3,5-linked arabinofuranosyl residues Saha et al.

The hexane extract of G. Among neutral lipids, the main components were sterol esters SEs , which accounted for about half of this fraction.

Liquiritin and glycyrrhizin, the major components of licorice extract, varied in the range of The relative proportion of glycyrrhizin derivative, glabridin, glabrene and liquiritigenin derivative, varied in the range of 0. Treatment of in-vitro cultured day-old G. Increasing amounts of glycyrrhizin in the roots treated with methyl jasmonate inhibited root growth, while salicylic acid increased the amount of glycyrrhizin without negative effects on growth.

Thirteen terpenoids, minor sapogenins were isolated from G. Glabric acid was isolated by Beaton and Spring Bogatkina et al. The following triterpenoid compounds were isolated from G. Glycyrrhiza glabra root yielded two saponins named glabranin-A, a pentaglycoside of glycyrrhetic acid, and glabranin-B, both a heptaglycoside of glycyrrhetic acid Varshney et al. Glabranin A on hydrolysis gave glucose and rhamnose whereas glabranin-B gave glucose, xylose and rhamnose in the molar ratio About 70 phenolic compounds were isolated from the subterranean parts of G.

Liquiritin and the corresponding chalcone, isoliquiritin were isolated from the dried root Puri and Seshadri ; they also isolated isoliquiritin from fresh roots but not liquiritin. Litvinenko et al. Liquiritoside, a flavonoside, was isolated from root of licorice, G. Licuroside was first isolated from the roots of Glycyrrhiza glabra by Litvinenko , Litvinenko and Obolentseva , and was found not to be a homogenous compound Miething and Speicher-Brinker Licoricidin was isolated from G.

An isoflavan named glabridin and glabrol, a flavanone, were isolated from Russian G. The Chinese licorice G. Isoliquiritin, rhamno-isoliquiritin, liquiritin, liquiritin apioside were isolated from the roots of Glycyrrhiza glabra var.

From the root of Glycyrrhiza glabra var. The other flavonoid was the corresponding chalcone. The structure of a new 3-arylcoumarin, glycerin, isolated from the root of Glycyrrhiza sp. Two compounds 9,12,trihydroxy- 10 E -octadecenoic and 9,12,trihydroxy,epoxy-octadecanoic acid were isolated from licorice Panossian et al. A new prenylated isoflavan derivative, kanzonol R, was isolated from G. High-performance liquid chromatography HPLC profiles of ethyl acetate extract of underground parts G.

The ethyl acetate extract of the rhizome afforded 7-hydroxycoumarin umbelliferone Kaur et al. One hundred and twenty six compounds including flavonoids, terpenoids, saponins, essential oils, amino acids, other nitrogen containing compounds, hydrocarbons, fatty acids and their esters were found in the ethanolic extract of licorice G. The most abundant phytoconstituents identified were: 5- hydroxymethyl furancarboxaldehyde Glycyrol, glycyrin, isoglycyrol and glycycoumarin were isolated from the methanolic extract of licorice roots from northwest China, G.

A new 2-arylbenzofuran derivative named licocoumarone with the structure 2- 2, 4-dihydroxyphenyl hydroxymethoxy 3-methylbutenyl coumarone was isolated from commercially available xibei licorice seihoku kanzo along with a known 3-arylcoumarin derivative, glycycoumarin Demizu et al. An anti-HIV human immunodeficiency virus phenolic constituent, licopyranocoumarin, and two other new phenolics named licoarylcoumarin and glisoflavone together with glycyrrhisoflavanone, kaempferol 3- O -methyl ether and licocoumarone were isolated from Si-pei licorice a commercial licorice; root and stolon of Glycyrrhiza sp.

Licuraside was isolated from G. From G. Five new flavonoid compounds named glucoliquiritin apioside a flavonone bisdesmoside , prenyllicoflavone A a bisprenylflavone , shinflavone a prenylated pyranoflavanone , shinpterocarpin and 1-methoxyphaseollin both pyranopterocarpans were isolated together with eight known saponins glycyrrhizin, licorice-saponins A3, C2, E2, G2, H2, apioglycyrrhizin and araboglycyrrhizin , and seven known flavonoid glycosides ononin, liquiritin, liquiritin apioside, isoliquiritin, neoisoliquiritin, luciraside and isoliquiritin apioside from the aqueous fraction of the methanol extract of G.

A large amount of glabridin, a prenylated flavonoid, was detected exclusively in the cork layer and the decayed part of the thickening roots while large amounts of flavonoid glycosides, liquiritigenin glycosides and isoliquiritigenin glycosides were mainly distributed in the woody part of the thickening roots Hayashi et al.

Two known isoflavonoids glabrene and glabrone were also isolated. From the ether soluble fraction of the crude licorice root, licoricidin, 1-methoxyphaseollin, 6,8-diprenylgenistein and 1-methoxyphaseollidin were isolated Nagumo et al. Yuldashev et al.

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Glycyrrhiza glabra

Glycyrrhiza glabra L. Glycyrrhiza brachycarpa Boiss. Li, Glycyrrhiza glabra var. Ponert, Glycyrrhiza glabra var. Sri Lanka : Atimaduram, Valmi Sinhala. According to Hayashi , Hayashi and Sudo , G. Three varieties of G.

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The liquorice plant is a herbaceous perennial legume native to the Western Asia and southern Europe. Liquorice is used as a flavouring in candies and tobacco, particularly in some European and West Asian countries. Liquorice extracts have been used in herbalism and traditional medicine. The flowers are 0. Much of the sweetness in liquorice comes from glycyrrhizin , which has a sweet taste, 30—50 times the sweetness of sugar.

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Its scientific name is taken from the Greek for sweet root glykys , meaning sweet, and rhiza , meaning root. It is cultivated for its rhizomes underground stems that contain the compound glycyrrhizin, which is 50 times sweeter than sugar. Also well-known as a medicinal plant, G. There are about 20 species in the genus Glycyrrhiza , and many of these are used locally to make liquorice confectionery. It is also used to combat food poisoning in modern Chinese herbalism.

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