FARMACOS MUCOLITICOS PDF

I Professora Titular de Pneumologia. Vestbo et al. Em termos absolutos, avaliado em 24 ou 52 semanas, o aumento foi discreto, variando de 24 a 74 mL. No entanto, Calverley et al. Choudhury et al. Por sua vez, Macie et al.

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I Professora Titular de Pneumologia. Vestbo et al. Em termos absolutos, avaliado em 24 ou 52 semanas, o aumento foi discreto, variando de 24 a 74 mL.

No entanto, Calverley et al. Choudhury et al. Por sua vez, Macie et al. Segundo Rennard et al. Calverley et al. Donohue et al. Aaron et al. Qualidade de vida. Resultados similares foram descritos por Welte et al. No entanto, Hanania et al. LAMA isolado. Yang et al. Entretanto, esses resultados devem ser interpretados com cautela. Efeitos adversos. Briggs et al. No estudo de Ernst et al. Os ICS apresentaram efeitos positivos e negativos, dependendo do desfecho estudado, com alguns efeitos adversos.

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Aclidinium bromide provides long-acting bronchodilation in patients with COPD. Pulm Pharmacol Ther. Efficacy of tiotropium inhalation powder in african-american patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Bronchodilator efficacy of tiotropium in patients with mild to moderate COPD. Prim Care Respir J. Early onset of effect of salmeterol and fluticasone propionate in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

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Faster onset of action of formoterol versus salmeterol in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a multicenter, randomized study. Arformoterol and salmeterol in the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a one year evaluation of safety and tolerance.

Ther Adv Respir Dis. Respir Med. Short-term effects of montelukast in stable patients with moderate to severe COPD. Roflumilast in moderate-to-severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease treated with longacting bronchodilators: two randomised clinical trials. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. Effect of tiotropium on outcomes in patients with moderate chronic obstructive pulmonary disease UPLIFT : a prespecified subgroup analysis of a randomised controlled trial.

Formoterol for maintenance and as-needed treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Outcomes in COPD patients receiving tiotropium or salmeterol plus treatment with inhaled corticosteroids. Respir Res. Roflumilast in symptomatic chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: two randomised clinical trials.

Improved daytime spirometric efficacy of tiotropium compared with salmeterol in patients with COPD. Tiotropium in combination with placebo, salmeterol, or fluticasone-salmeterol for treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a randomized trial. Ann Intern Med. Effect of pharmacotherapy on rate of decline of lung function in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: results from the TORCH study. A 4-year trial of tiotropium in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

N Engl J Med. Interpretative strategies for lung function tests. Eur Respir J. Randomised, double blind, placebo controlled study of fluticasone propionate in patients with moderate to severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: the ISOLDE trial. Decramer M, Cooper CB. Treatment of COPD: the sooner the better? Sociedade Brasileira de Pneumologia e Tisiologia.

J Bras Pneumol. A randomized controlled trial to assess the efficacy of tiotropium in Canadian patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Can Respir J. Tiotropium and exercise training in COPD patients: effects on dyspnea and exercise tolerance. Salmeterol and fluticasone propionate and survival in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Cardiovascular morbidity and the use of inhaled bronchodilators. Withdrawal of inhaled corticosteroids in people with COPD in primary care: a randomised controlled trial.

Inhaled corticosteroid use in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and the risk of hospitalization for pneumonia. Effect of 1-year treatment with roflumilast in severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Miravitlles M. Outcomes for COPD pharmacological trials: from lung function to biomarkers. Safety and efficacy of combined long-acting beta-agonists and inhaled corticosteroids vs long-acting beta-agonists monotherapy for stable COPD: a systematic review.

Inhaled corticosteroids vs placebo for preventing COPD exacerbations: a systematic review and metaregression of randomized controlled trials. Evaluation of withdrawal of maintenance tiotropium in COPD. Effect of tiotropium on health-related quality of life as a primary efficacy endpoint in COPD. Efficacy and safety of nebulized formoterol as add-on therapy in COPD patients receiving maintenance tiotropium bromide: Results from a 6-week, randomized, placebo-controlled, clinical trial.

Safety of long-acting beta-agonists in stable COPD: a systematic review. Ipratropium bromide versus long-acting beta-2 agonists for stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev.

Inhaled corticosteroids for stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Inhaled corticosteroids in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: results from two observational designs free of immortal time bias. Inhaled corticosteroids and mortality in COPD. Inhaled corticosteroids and survival in COPD patients receiving long-term home oxygen therapy.

Short-acting inhaled betaagonists increased the mortality from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in observational designs. J Clin Epidemiol. Survival with tiotropium compared to long-acting Betaagonists in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease. Drug Saf. Risk for death associated with medications for recently diagnosed chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

The effects of long-acting bronchodilators on total mortality in patients with stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Respiratory medications and the risk of cardiac arrhythmias. Oral corticosteroid use and the risk of acute myocardial infarction in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Inhaled corticosteroids and the risk of fracture in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

Fracture risk in patients with chronic lung diseases treated with bronchodilator drugs and inhaled and oral corticosteroids. Severity of obstructive airway disease and risk of osteoporotic fracture. Inhaled corticosteroids and risk of lung cancer among patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Singh S, Loke YK. Risk of pneumonia associated with long-term use of inhaled corticosteroids in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a critical review and update.

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