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Print Send Add Share. D Dissertations, Academic -- Counselor Education -- UF Electronic data processing in vocational guidance lcsh Vocational interests -- Florida -- Gainesville lcsh Genre: bibliography marcgt non-fiction marcgt.
Notes Thesis: Thesis--University of Florida. Bibliography: Bibliography: leaves General Note: Typescript. General Note: Vita. Statement of Responsibility: by Howard Francis Devine.
Permission granted to the University of Florida to digitize, archive and distribute this item for non-profit research and educational purposes. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder. My sincere and deepest gratitude are extended to the following: Dr. Robert 0. Stripling, my advisor, whose encouragement, under- standing of others, and expertise over the past two years have made my doctoral studies a rich learning experience.
My doctoral committee, Drs. James L. Wattenbarger and Harold C. Riker, for their guidance and support throughout my doctoral program, and Dr.
Ellen S. Amatea, whose enthusiasm and expertise in the area of career development provided much stimulation during the investigation. Larry C. Loesch, teacher and friend, for his generous assis- tance in the statistical analysis, whose encouragement will be long remembered. Robert G. Ms Barbara Rucker, my fellow student, for her patience in typing the manuscripts. I Rationale for the Study. I Definitions. II Indices of Career Maturity Ill Conclusions of the Investigation. Stripling Major Department: Counselor Education The concepts that vocational behavior is a developmental process and that career intervention programs can facilitate this process have been generally accepted in the counseling profession during the past decade.
Recently several types of career guidance techniques have been devised, including computer-based interactive career guidance programs. It was designed to assist students in clarifying their occupational values, in gaining greater knowledge of self and of specific occupations, and in increasing decision-making skills.
One method of determining the effectiveness of a career guidance program is to study its impact on clients' career development. Researchers have relied on career maturity indices as a measure of one's relative career development, and several investigators have employed Crites' Career Maturity Inventory CMI to study the effects of guidance programs on the vocational maturity of participants. An experimental study was designed to discover the effects of SIGI viii on community college students' vocational maturity, as measured by the CMI and a questionnaire developed by the author.
Eighty-four students enrolled in a personal development course were subjects for the investi- gation and were randomly assigned to the two treatment and two control groups of a Solomon group design. It was also hypothesized that SIGI would increase one's specific decision-making abilities on the choice of an academic major and on an occupation, and would increase one's commitment to educational and occupational decisions all as measured by the author's questionnaire.
Finally, differential effects of the SIGI program on males compared to females and on subjects in the vocational-technical program compared to those in the university transfer program were studied. There were no significant differences between treatment and control subjects in their scores on the CMI Attitude Scale or on the three Competence Test scales. Thus SIGI did not affect one's career maturity, as measured by these instruments.
No differences were found between treatment and control subjects' ability to state either an occupational or educational choice. There was a tendency, however, for treatment subjects to change their educational or career choices or to be undecided about a career, and SIGI may have stimulated them to consider a wider variety of occupations than they had previously considered.
While differences were not significant, subjects involved with SIGI ix tended to be more committed to the academic and career choices they had already made than were control subjects.
SIGI thus appeared to provide reinforcement for these decisions. On the basis of the variables studied, SIGI had no differential effects on subjects on the basis of sex or on the basis of academic program in which enrolled. Finally, there were no interaction effects between the pretest and the experimental treatment. The limitations of the instruments used, the motivation of the subjects, and the time interval of the pretest and posttest were discussed as possible factors contributing to the results of the study.
The findings suggest that further research on SIGI is warranted, particularly as it affects a student's values clarification, specific information on particular careers, and on his commitment to academic and vocational choices.
One of the theories that has gained widespread acceptance since its early formulations in the s is the concept that vocational behavior is a developmental process rather than a static choice point in an individual's life.
The term "career development"' has thus become the focal point of many career theories, including those of Crites, Super, Ginzberg et al. These theorists have identified stages of career development through which an individual progresses from early childhood through adulthood in choosing an occupation, and they have outlined specific developmental tasks which must be performed at each stage. According to such theorists, each stage of career development usually occurs during a particular chronological age span.
If the individual accomplishes the developmental tasks associated with the particular stage, he or she progresses to the next stage. Thus one's career maturity is relative to age and stage expectations.
The individual is considered to be maturing in his career development if The terms "career" and "vocation" are used synonymously in this study. See Tolbert, , p.
In its simplest form, career maturity can be defined as that point on the continuum of career development denoting the person's degree of attained development at a given time. This concept of vocational maturity is a crucial aspect of several career development theories since it is the standard or gauge of development useful in determining when and how to intervene in the individual's career development process.
Theorists have proposed particular elements or components of career maturity which have been corroborated by researchers. Five of the most common elements are: the attitudes an individual has about careers and the world of work; his sense of planning and accepting responsibility for decisions; his ability to make decisions; his knowledge about himself, his values, interests, and abilities; and his knowledge about occupations.
A method of gauging career maturity was to study these facets of career development skills as exhibited in one's behavior. This led to the construction of instruments to measure one's career maturity, i. These instruments have been utilized by practitioners for diagnostic purposes and, more commonly, for evaluating the outcomes of counseling and other career development intervention techniques.
A second characteristic of the past decade has been the develop- ment of new approaches to career guidance any systematic activity designed to facilitate career exploration or career decision making.
Most of these approaches have been influenced by career development theories and their general purpose has been to assist an individual in accomplishing the tasks associated with the particular stage of career development in which he is located, thus advancing his career maturity. The focus is on the process of decision making rather than on the content of the decision.
Some of those career exploration approaches include new methods of individual developmental counseling, a variety of group counseling programs, career education curriculum approaches, use of multimedia techniques, and the application of computer tech- nology to information dissemination and career exploration.
One common method used by researchers in evaluating these new approaches is to study the impact of the technique on the relative level of career development as measured by career maturity indices. The use of computers in career guidance has been one of the most recent techniques developed and is a promising approach in facilitating career exploration and decision making.
Several computer-based career guidance programs are in the process of being developed, field tested, and implemented. However, little research exists on the impact of the programs on the career maturity of clients. While several career exploration programs utilizing computer technology have been developed, only four could be termed "second generation" programs; they not only store, integrate, and retrieve information, but provide for interaction with a client. With these systems, the client has direct access to the computer and controls the interaction through the use of a cathode-ray tube similar to a televi- sion screen and a computer terminal similar to a typewriter.
By punch- ing keys, the client may ask questions of the computer, and answers flash on the screen. Similarly, the computer "asks" clients questions about his values, interests, and abilities.
Through this interaction, the client purportedly learns more about not only the decision-making process but also about himself and careers, thus allowing him to inte- grate this knowledge in making educational and vocational decisions. SIGI is designed primarily for use with community college students and assists clients in exploring their career values, deciding on educational and vocational fields, and making plans for implementing these decisions.
Comparatively little research has been conducted on the impact of any computer-assisted career guidance program on the client's level of career maturity, and none, to this author's knowledge, has been conducted on SIGI. Rationale for the Study The concept of the developmental nature of career behavior and its related notion of career maturity is well accepted in the counseling profession, and instruments based upon this concept have been developed to measure career maturity. Practitioners have assumed that one's career maturity can be facilitated through career intervention tech- niques, and research has generally supported this assumption for several career exploration programs.
Whether this program is an effective method of assisting clients in their career development, however, can only be determined by studying the results of the program. One such conse- quence which can be measured and evaluated is the degree to which SIGI affects the level of clients' career maturity, which is the focus of this investigation.
In addition to evaluating SIGl's effect on clients' career maturity, this investigation provides the student development staff of Santa Fe Community College with data-based information regarding the relative level of the career maturity of a sample of its students. The results of the investigation may assist in identifying some of the effects on these students from interacting with SIGI, as well as evaluate the relative benefits of the program, and thus provide input on how the staff may best utilize its computer services in assisting students in their career development.
Purpose of the Study The purpose of this study, then, is to determine the impact of the computer assisted career guidance system, SIGI, on the career development of community college students, as measured by a career maturity inventory. The following questions are investigated: 1. What effect does the SIGI program have on the following com- ponents of a student's career maturity: a career choice attitudes, b knowledge about himself, c knowledge about occupations, and d planning and decision-making skills?
What effect does the SIGI program have on a student's making specific educational and occupational choices and what effects does SIGI have on the consistency and commitment of a student to these choices? Is there a relationship between the variables of sex and type of academic program in which the student is enrolled and the amount of assistance received from the SIGI program? Concepts and Theories of Career Development Prior to the s, vocational psychologists had been studying how individuals in one occupation differed from those in other occupa- tions and how successful persons differed from less successful ones within occupations.
The emphasis was on matching the right person to the right job. Beginning in the s, however, psychologists were devoting their attention to the study of vocational choice as a develop- mental process and were attempting to learn how vocational goals develop, how they are modified and implemented, what decisions about vocations confront an individual at various points in his life, and what were the factors that facilitated or hindered vocational progress.
This was a During the s and s several psychologists proposed theories 6 attempting to explain the process of career development, and three examples of such theories are briefly reviewed below. Ginzberg, Ginsburg, Axelrod, and Herman perhaps made the first comprehensive statement of career development theory. They main- tained that vocational choice was actually a series of choices an individual makes between his wishes and his possibilities, and further suggested that four variables were involved in a vocational choice: I reality factors the environmental influences , 2 the influence of the educational process the type and kind of education a person has received , 3 emotional factors, and 4 individual values.
According to this theory, there are three periods in the process of career development, each period occurring at a general chronological age point: the fantasy period, the tentative period, and the realistic period. These periods are further divided into stages during which an individual is expected to accomplish specific developmental tasks.
During the fantasy period, which lasts approximately to the tenth year, a general maturation process of changing from a play to a work orientation occurs. The tentative period is composed of four stages: interest stage ages , capacity stage ages , value stage ages , and transition stage ages During these stages, the adolescent considers the intrinsic enjoyment of occupations, his own abilities, his values, the service to society particular occupa- tions provide, and finally, the responsibilities he has to make vocational decisions.
The realistic period, occurring generally from ages , is divided into the exploration, crystallization, and specification stages.
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