Herbs, erect or scandent shrubs, rarely small trees, often glandular hairy. Leaves alternate or rarely opposite, simple or digitately rarely 1, 2 or 9- -foliolate; leaflets usually entire; stipules , often spiny, persistent or caducous. Inflorescence terminal or axillary, often corymbose, sometimes solitary or fascicled. Flowers hermaphrodite rarely dioecious , regular, sometimes with unequal sepals or petals, complete or rarely petals wanting, pedicellate.
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Watson and M. Including Cleomaceae Horan. Habit and leaf form. Trees, or shrubs, or lianas, or herbs rarely ; non-glandular, not resinous. Self supporting, or climbing. Xerophytic commonly , or mesophytic.
Leaves alternate; spiral, or distichous rarely ; petiolate; non-sheathing; gland-dotted, or not gland-dotted; simple, or compound; when compound, palmate. Leaves stipulate, or exstipulate stipules small.
Stipules when present often spiny or represented by glands. Lamina margins often involute. Leaf anatomy. The leaf lamina dorsiventral to centric. Abaxial epidermis papillose, or not papillose. Stomata present; anomocytic. Hairs of numerous kinds present see illustration ; mostly eglandular by contrast with Cleomaceae ; unicellular and multicellular.
Complex hairs present, or absent; peltate, or stellate, or capitate. Adaxial hypodermis present, or absent. The mesophyll with sclerenchymatous idioblasts, or without sclerenchymatous idioblasts.
Minor leaf veins without phloem transfer cells Capparis , Steriphoma. Axial stem, wood anatomy. Cork cambium present; initially deep-seated, or initially superficial. Nodes unilacunar. Internal phloem absent. Cortical bundles secondary, pericyclic present, or absent. Medullary bundles absent. Secondary thickening developing from a conventional cambial ring, or anomalous. The anomalous secondary thickening via concentric cambia often , or from a single cambial ring. The vessel end-walls simple.
The vessels with vestured pits. The axial xylem with fibre tracheids, or without fibre tracheids; with libriform fibres; including septate fibres rarely , or without septate fibres.
The parenchyma paratracheal. The secondary phloem stratified into hard fibrous and soft parenchymatous zones, or not stratified. The wood partially storied, or not storied. Reproductive type, pollination. Unisexual flowers present, or absent. Plants hermaphrodite, or dioecious. Pollination entomophilous. Inflorescence, floral, fruit and seed morphology.
The ultimate inflorescence units racemose. Inflorescences usually in racemes. Flowers bracteate; ebracteolate; regular to somewhat irregular; usually 4 merous. Floral receptacle developing a gynophore, or developing an androphore and developing a gynophore causing the pistil to project. Hypogynous disk present; of separate members a ring. Calyx lobes about the same length as the tube, or markedly longer than the tube.
Calyx bilabiate, or regular; imbricate. Corolla 4 diagonal, very rarely 2 ; 1 whorled; polypetalous the petals equal or unequal, sometimes hooding ; imbricate.
Androecium basically 4, or 6— i. Androecial members branched commonly , or unbranched; when branched, maturing centrifugally; free of the perianth; all equal to markedly unequal; basally coherent, or free of one another.
The androecial bundles when detectable alternating with the corolla members. Androecium exclusively of fertile stamens, or including staminodes or with staminodal branches.
Anthers dorsifixed to basifixed; dehiscing via longitudinal slits; introrse; tetrasporangiate. Endothecium developing fibrous thickenings. Anther epidermis persistent.
Microsporogenesis simultaneous. The initial microspore tetrads tetrahedral, or decussate. Anther wall initially with more than one middle layer. Tapetum glandular. Pollen grains aperturate; 2— 3 —4 aperturate; colporate colporoidate ; 2-celled. The pistil 1 celled, or 2 celled, or 3—12 celled. Gynoecium syncarpous ; eu-syncarpous; superior. Ovary 1 locular usually , or 2 locular by false septa. Ovary generally stipitate.
Gynoecium non-stylate, or stylate. Styles 1; attenuate from the ovary; apical; shorter than the ovary. Stigmas 1; dorsal to the carpels, or commissural? Outer integument contributing to the micropyle, or not contributing to the micropyle.
Embryo-sac development Polygonum -type. Polar nuclei fusing prior to fertilization. Antipodal cells formed; 3; not proliferating; ephemeral usually small, large in Maerua. Synergids hooked sometimes with filiform apparatus. Endosperm formation nuclear.
Embryogeny onagrad, or solanad. Fruit fleshy, or non-fleshy; dehiscent, or indehiscent; a capsule often , or a berry usually , or a drupe, or a nut, or a samara. Seeds endospermic, or non-endospermic. Cotyledons 2 oily. Embryo variously curved, or bent. The radicle lateral, or dorsal. Germination phanerocotylar.
Physiology, phytochemistry. C 3 physiology recorded directly in Cadaba , Capparis , Maerua. Anatomy non-C 4 type Boscia , Capparis. Mustard-oils present. Cyanogenic, or not cyanogenic. Alkaloids present 21 species. Iridoids not detected. Proanthocyanidins absent. Flavonols absent. Ellagic acid absent Euadenia. Aluminium accumulation not found. Sieve-tube plastids P-type, or S-type; when P-type type I b. Geography, cytology.
Temperate to tropical. Subclass Dicotyledonae; Crassinucelli. Species General remarks. Separation from Cleomaceae may be unsustainable, since difficulties are encountered in assigning the genera.
Precise comparative data on gynoecium and fruit structure are elusive or non-existent. Economic uses, etc. Flower buds of Capparis spp.
The Capparaceae or Capparidaceae , commonly known as the caper family, are a family of plants in the order Brassicales. As currently circumscribed, the family contains 33 genera and about species. The largest genera are Capparis about species , Maerua about species , Boscia 37 species and Cadaba 30 species. The Capparaceae have long been considered closely related to and have often been included in the Brassicaceae , the mustard family APG, , in part because both groups produce glucosinolate mustard oil compounds. Subsequent molecular studies  support Capparaceae sensu stricto as paraphyletic with respect to the Brassicaceae. However Cleome and several related genera are more closely related to members of the Brassicaceae than to the other Capparaceae.
The Families of Angiosperms
Capparidaceae Capparaceae ; order Capparidales A family of dicotyledonous Dicotyledoneae plants most of which are shrubs and small trees. The leaves are alternate, simple or compound , with stipules which are sometimes spiny. The flowers are usually borne in racemes , and have 4 petals , 2 pairs of sepals , 4—6 or more stamens , and a superior ovary of 2 carpels. The fruit is a berry , nut or drupe.