ASTM D ASTM A ASTM D ASTM C
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ASTM D ASTM A ASTM D ASTM C Designation: D — 05 Standard Practice for Fluorescent UV Exposure of Plastics1 This standard is issued under the xed designation D ; the number immediately following the designation indicates the year of original adoption or, in the case of revision, the year of last revision.
A number in parentheses indicates the year of last reapproval. A superscript epsilon e indicates an editorial change since the last revision or reapproval. This practice also covers the preparation of test specimens, the test conditions best suited for plastics, and the evaluation of test results. The values given in brackets are for information only. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
Terminology 3. Signicance and Use 4. This practice is intended to induce property changes associated with end-use conditions, including the effects of sunlight, moisture, and heat. The exposure used in this practice is not intended to simulate the deterioration caused by localized weather phenomena, such as, atmospheric pollution, biological attack, and saltwater exposure. Warning— Variation in results may be expected when operating conditions are varied within the accepted limits of this practice.
Therefore, no reference to the use of this practice should be made unless accompanied by a report prepared in accordance with Section 8 that describes the specic operating conditions used.
Refer to Practice G for detailed information on the caveats applicable to use of results obtained in accordance with this practice.
NOTE 2—Additional information on sources of variability and on strategies for addressing variability in the design, execution, and data analysis of laboratory-accelerated exposure tests is found in Guide G Referenced Documents 2. Current edition approved July 15, Published August Originally approved in Last previous edition approved in as D - It is recommended that at least three replicates of each material be exposed to allow for statistical evaluation of results.
Signicant factors include regulation of line voltage, temperature of the room in which the device operates, temperature control, and condition and age of the lamp. Apparatus 5.
Measure ambient temperature at a maximum distance of mm [6 in. Control of ambient temperature is particularly critical when one apparatus is stacked above another, because the heat generated from the lower unit can interfere with the operation of the units above. Do not place the apparatus near a heat source such as an oven.
Test Specimen 6. Where practical, it is recommended that specimens be sized to t specimen holders and racks supplied with the exposure apparatus. Unless supplied with a specic backing as an integral part of the test, specimens shall be mounted so that only the minimum specimen area required for support by the holder shall be covered. This unexposed surface must not be used as part of the test area.
Suggested aluminum alloys are , , or Ketola and Douglas Grossman, eds. Attach porous specimens to a solid backing such as aluminum that can act as a vapor barrier. Misleading results may be obtained by this method, since the masked portion of the specimen is still exposed to temperature and humidity cycles that in many cases will affect results.
NOTE 4—This is especially important when mechanical properties are being investigated. When specimens are removed from the exposure apparatus for 24 h or more and then returned for additional exposure, report the elapsed time as noted in accordance with Section 9. NOTE 5—Since the stability of the le specimen may also be timedependent, users are cautioned that over prolonged exposure periods, or where small differences in the order of acceptable limits are anticipated, comparison of exposed specimens with the le specimen may not be valid.
Instrumental measurements are recommended whenever possible. Obtain mutual agreement between all concerned parties for the specic exposure cycle used. For instance, if two specimens are stacked vertically in each holder, then the top and bottom specimens should switch places halfway through the test.
If four specimens are stacked vertically, then the specimens should be repositioned vertically three times during the test. Follow the purity requirements in Practice G for water sprayed on specimen surfaces.
It is recommended that deionized water be used for water used to produce condensation. All concerned parties must agree on the control material used. Periods of Exposure and Evaluation of Test Results 8. This method is preferred over evaluating materials after an arbitrary exposure time or radiant exposure. When a single exposure period is used, select a time or radiant exposure that will produce the largest performance differences between the test materials or between the test material and the control material.
Procedure 7. Operate the device continuously. An exposure time that produces a signicant change in one type of material cannot be assumed to be applicable to other types of materials. Do not use arbitrary acceleration factors relating time in an exposure conducted in accordance with this practice and time in an outdoor environment because they can give erroneous information.
The acceleration factor is materialdependent and is only valid if it is based on data from a sufficient number of separate exterior and laboratoryaccelerated exposures so that results used to relate times to failure in each exposure can be analyzed using statistical methods.
NOTE 6—An example of a statistical analysis using multiple-laboratory and exterior exposures to calculate an acceleration factor is described by Simms. NOTE 7—For some materials, changes may continue after the specimen has been removed from the exposure apparatus. Measurements visual or instrumental should be made within a standardized time period or as agreed upon between the interested parties.
The standardized time period needs to consider conditioning prior to testing. Conduct these round robins in accordance with Practice E or Practice D and include a statistically representative sample of all laboratories or organizations who would normally conduct the exposure and property measurement.
All specimens shall be exposed simultaneously in the same device. All concerned parties must agree on the specic control material used. Expose replicates of the test specimen and the control specimen so that statistically signicant performance differences can be determined NOTE 8—Fischer illustrates use of rank comparison between test and control materials in specications. Calculate retention of characteristic property in accordance with Practice D when it is reported. Precision and Bias Keywords Report 9.
For measurements 8 Fischer, R. Referenced Documents. ASTM International takes no position respecting the validity of any patent rights asserted in connection with any item mentioned in this standard. Users of this standard are expressly advised that determination of the validity of any such patent rights, and the risk of infringement of such rights, are entirely their own responsibility.
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Accelerated Weathering (QUV) ASTM G154, ASTM D4329, ASTM D4587, ISO 4892
Enabling you to identify and mitigate the intrinsic risk in your operations, supply chains and business processes. Learn More. Evaluating how your products and services meet and exceed quality, safety, sustainability and performance standards. Validating the specifications, value and safety of your raw materials, products and assets. Formally confirming that your products and services meet all trusted external and internal standards. Accelerated weathering simulates damaging effects of long term outdoor exposure of materials and coatings. A QUV test chamber uses fluorescent lamps to provide a radiation spectrum centered in the ultraviolet wavelengths.
Historical Version s - view previous versions of standard. Work Item s - proposed revisions of this standard. More D This practice is intended to induce property changes associated with end-use conditions, including the effects of ultraviolet solar irradiance, moisture, and heat. The exposure used in this practice is not intended to simulate the deterioration caused by localized weather phenomena, such as, atmospheric pollution, biological attack, and saltwater exposure. Warning— Variation in results may be expected when operating conditions are varied within the accepted limits of this practice.
Standard Practice for Fluorescent Ultraviolet (UV) Lamp Apparatus Exposure of Plastics