THEODOLITE TRAVERSING PDF

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Generally, an eBook can be downloaded in five minutes or less Browse by Genre Available eBooks Show More. Dhanush Poornima. Nandlal Paswan. Kermina Essam. No Downloads. Views Total views. Actions Shares. Embeds 0 No embeds. No notes for slide. Theodolite Traversing 1. Theodolite Traversing Unit-V 2. Theodolite 5. Introduction 7. Is known as centering. In other words transiting results in a change in face. Optical Plummet Definitions Face right This refers to the situation when the vertical circle of the instrument is on the right of the observer when the reading is taken Changing face The operation of bringing the vertical circle from one side of the observer to the other is known as changing face.

Swinging the telescope This indicates turning the telescope in a horizontal plane. The Transit Theodolite Axis of Telescope The axis is an imaginary line passing through the optical centre of the object glass and the optical centre of the eye-peace. Axis of Theodolite This adjustment is known as permanent adjustment. It is the smallest value that can be measured by a theodolite. It is placed in position by turning four capstan-headed screws, and can be moved up, down or sideways when required.

It is fixed in front of the eye-piece. The crosshairs may be made of fine platinum wire. Difinitions It is also called the base plate. Three foot screws are secured to this plate by means of a ball and socket arrangement. And the upper threaded part passes through the threaded hole in the tribrach plate. The lower part of the foot screw are secured in the trivet by means of a ball and socket arrangement and the upper threaded part passes through the threaded hole in the tribrach plate.

The inner axis is solid and conical, and the outer is hollow. The two spindles are coaxial. It is attached to the inner axis. Its motion is controlled by the upper clamp screw and the upper tangent screw. When the clamp screw is tightened the vernier scale are fixed with the inner axis, and for fine adjustment of the scale the tangent screw is rotated.

One bubble is kept right parallel to the horizontal axis of the theodolite. Sometimes one plate bubble is provided on the vernier plate. The bubble are meant for leveling this instrument at the time of measuring the horizontal angle. These frames are known as standard A-Frames. It can be rotated about its horizontal axis in a vertical plane. The telescope is provided with a focusing screw, clamping screw and tangent screw. It is divided into four quadrants.

It carries two vernier C and D at the two ends of the horizontal arm. The vertical leg of the index bar is provided with a clip screw at the lower end by means of which the altitude bubble can be brought to the centre.

This bubble is brought to the centre by the clip screw at the time of measuring. Of the vertical angle. In modern theodolites, an adjustable trough compass or tubular compass can be fitted with a screw to the standard. The main division of the main scale is of one degree. Suppose, again that the first small division after 12 big division exactly coincides with any of the main scale divisions.

The theodolite is then shifted from the box and fixed on top of the stand by means of a wing nut or according to the fixed arrangement provided along with the instrument. Then, approximately leveling is done using this stand, To do this, two legs are kept firmly fixed on the ground and third is moved in or out, clockwise or anticlockwise, so that the bubble is approximately at the centre of its run.

At the time of approximate leveling by means of the tripod stand, it should be ensured that the plumb bob suspended from the book under the vertical axis lies approximately over the station peg.

Then the following procedure is adopted. By turning both these screws equally inwards or outwards. Then by turning the third foot screw either clockwise or anticlockwise the bubble is brought to the centre.

In such a case, one bubble is kept parallel to any pair of foot screws; the other platy bubble will automatically be perpendicular to the position of first bubble. Here, the instruments need not be turned.

The first bubble can be brought to the centre by turning the first and second foot screws, and the second bubble can be brought to the centre by turning the third foot screw. If the bubble still remains in the centre position, the adjustment of the bubble is perfect and the vertical axis is truly vertical.

To do this, the telescope is directed towards the sky or a piece of white paper is held in front of the object glass, and the eye-piece is moved in or out by turning it in clockwise or anticlockwise until the cross —hairs appear distinct and sharp. To do this the lower clamp is fixed. The upper clamp is loosened and the upper plate turned until the arrow of vernier. A approximately coincides with zero. And the vernier B approximately coincides with the 0 mark.

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What is theodolite? Theodolite part, survey, Traversing

In this article, we show all information about theodolite s like parts of the theodolite, survey of theodolite , and classification of theodolite , theodolite traversing, and process of theodolite traversing. An instrument used for measuring horizontal and vertical angle accurately is known as a theodolite. It is used for prolongation of survey lines, finding the difference in elevation and setting out engineering works requiring higher precision, i. A theodolite is called a transit theodolite if is telescope can be transited, for example it can revolve through a complete revolution about its horizontal axis in a vertical plane. In non-transit theodolite its telescope cannot be transited, i,e, it cannot revolve through a complete revolution about its horizontal axis in a vertical plane. The length of traverse legs measures directly on the ground by changing or taping according to the accuracy aimed at, and the nature of the ground.

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Theodolite

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The traditional use has been for land surveying , but they are also used extensively for building and infrastructure construction , and some specialized applications such as meteorology and rocket launching. It consists of a moveable telescope mounted so it can rotate around horizontal and vertical axes and provide angular readouts. These indicate the orientation of the telescope, and are used to relate the first point sighted through the telescope to subsequent sightings of other points from the same theodolite position. These angles can be measured with great accuracy, typically to milliradian or seconds of arc. From these readings a plan can be drawn, or objects can be positioned in accordance with an existing plan. The modern theodolite has evolved into what is known as a total station where angles and distances are measured electronically, and are read directly to computer memory.

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