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Since the time of the 5th Dalai Lama in the 17th century, his personage has always been a symbol of unification of the state of Tibet , where he has represented Buddhist values and traditions. While he had no formal or institutional role in any of the religious traditions, which were headed by their own high lamas, he was a unifying symbol of the Tibetan state, representing Buddhist values and traditions above any specific school.
He has worked to overcome sectarian and other divisions in the exiled community and has become a symbol of Tibetan nationhood for Tibetans both in Tibet and in exile. From until and from to the s, the Dalai Lamas or their regents headed the Tibetan government or Ganden Phodrang in Lhasa which governed all or most of the Tibetan Plateau with varying degrees of autonomy  under the Qing dynasty of China , in which Tibet had been under non-Tibetan suzerainty,  and a period of disputed "de facto independence" between and This Tibetan government also enjoyed the patronage and protection of firstly Mongol kings of the Khoshut and Dzungar Khanates — and then of the emperors of the Manchu -led Qing dynasty — This lineage has been extrapolated by Tibetans up to and including the Dalai Lamas.
He later extended this to cover Tsang,  where he constructed a fourth great monastery, Tashi Lhunpo , at Shigatse. Thus most of Mongolia was added to the Dalai Lama's sphere of influence, founding a spiritual empire which largely survives to the modern age. By , a strategy that was planned and carried out by his resourceful chagdzo or manager Sonam Rapten with the military assistance of his devoted disciple Gushri Khan , Chieftain of the Khoshut Mongols, enabled the 'Great 5th' to found the Dalai Lamas' religious and political reign over more or less the whole of Tibet that survived for over years.
Thus the Dalai Lamas became pre-eminent spiritual leaders in Tibet and 25 Himalayan and Central Asian kingdoms and countries bordering Tibet and their prolific literary works have "for centuries acted as major sources of spiritual and philosophical inspiration to more than fifty million people of these lands". Gendun Drup — , a disciple of the founder Je Tsongkapa ,  was the ordination name of the monk who came to be known as the ' First Dalai Lama ', but only from years after he died.
Despite this, when the Tashilhunpo monks started hearing what seemed credible accounts that an incarnation of Gendun Drup had appeared nearby and repeatedly announced himself from the age of two, their curiosity was aroused.
When eventually the monastic authorities saw compelling evidence which convinced them that the child in question was indeed the incarnation of their founder, they felt obliged to break with their own tradition. In , the boy was renamed Gendun Gyatso and installed at Tashilhunpo as Gendun Drup's tulku, albeit informally. Gendun Gyatso died in and the lineage of Dalai Lama tulkus finally became firmly established when the third incarnation, Sonam Gyatso — , came forth. He made himself known as the tulku of Gendun Gyatso and was formally recognised and enthroned at Drepung in The Dalai Lama lineage started from humble beginnings.
When his father died in his mother was unable to support the young goatherd so she entrusted him to his uncle, a monk at Narthang , a major Kadampa monastery near Shigatse, for education as a Buddhist monk. In Gendun Drup met Tsongkhapa , founder of the Gelugpa school, and became his student; their meeting was of decisive historical and political significance as he was later to be known as the 1st Dalai Lama. It was mainly due to Gendun Drup's energy and ability that Tsongkhapa's new school grew into an expanding order capable of competing with others on an equal footing.
Gendun Drup was said to be the greatest scholar-saint ever produced by Narthang Monastery  and became 'the single most important lama in Tibet'. At the age of 50, he entered meditation retreat at Narthang. As he grew older, Karma Kagyu adherents, finding their sect was losing too many recruits to the monkhood to burgeoning Gelugpa monasteries, tried to contain Gelug expansion by launching military expeditions against them in the region. Although he was born in a cattle pen to be a simple goatherd, Gendun Drup rose to become one of the most celebrated and respected teachers in Tibet and Central Asia.
His spiritual accomplishments brought him lavish donations from devotees which he used to build and furnish new monasteries, to print and distribute Buddhist texts and to maintain monks and meditators. Returning to Tashilhunpo  he died 'in a blaze of glory, recognised as having attained Buddhahood'.
His mortal remains were interred in a bejewelled silver stupa at Tashilhunpo, which survived the Cultural Revolution and can still be seen. Like the Kadampa, the Gelugpa eschewed the tulku system. He was then 8, but until his 12th year his father took him on his teachings and retreats, training him in all the family Nyingma lineages. Tutored personally by the abbot he made rapid progress and from at 17 he was requested to teach all over Tsang, where thousands gathered to listen and give obeisance, including senior scholars and abbots.
Although he had served for some years as Tashilhunpo's abbot, he therefore moved to central Tibet, where he was invited to Drepung and where his reputation as a brilliant young teacher quickly grew. Under his leadership, the sect went on growing in size and influence  and with its appeal of simplicity, devotion and austerity its lamas were asked to mediate in disputes between other rivals.
All Dalai Lamas from the 3rd on were found with the help of such visions granted to regents. On his return in , he was given the residence built for Gendun Drup, to be occupied later by the Panchen Lamas. Gendun Gyatso continued to travel widely and teach while based at Tibet's largest monastery, Drepung and became known as 'Drepung Lama',  his fame and influence spreading all over Central Asia as the best students from hundreds of lesser monasteries in Asia were sent to Drepung for education.
Throughout Gendun Gyatso's life, the Gelugpa were opposed and suppressed by older rivals, particularly the Karma Kagyu and their Ringpung clan patrons from Tsang, who felt threatened by their loss of influence. In , already abbot of Chokhorgyel, Drepung and Tashilhunpo, he was made abbot of Sera monastery as well, and seeing the number of monks was low he worked to increase it.
Gongma Gyaltsen Palzangpo of Khyomorlung at Tolung and his Queen Sangyey Paldzomma also became his favourite devoted lay patrons and disciples in the s and he visited their area to carry out rituals as 'he chose it for his next place of rebirth'.
A brilliant scholar and teacher,  he had the spiritual maturity to be made Abbot of Drepung,  taking responsibility for the material and spiritual well-being of Tibet's largest monastery at the age of nine. At 10 he led the Monlam Prayer Festival , giving daily discourses to the assembly of all Gelugpa monks. At 17, when fighting broke out in Lhasa between Gelug and Kagyu parties and efforts by local lamas to mediate failed, Sonam Gyatso negotiated a peaceful settlement.
At 19, when the Kyichu River burst its banks and flooded Lhasa, he led his followers to rescue victims and repair the dykes. He then instituted a custom whereby on the last day of Monlam , all the monks would work on strengthening the flood defences.
Required to travel and teach without respite after taking full ordination in , he still maintained extensive meditation practices in the hours before dawn and again at the end of the day. Invited to become the Abbot he declined, already being Abbot of Drepung and Sera, but left his deputy there in his stead.
Meanwhile, Altan Khan , chief of all the Mongol tribes near China's borders, had heard of Sonam Gyatso's spiritual prowess and repeatedly invited him to Mongolia. They met in an atmosphere of intense reverence and devotion  and their meeting resulted in the re-establishment of strong Tibet-Mongolia relations after a gap of years.
From this time Buddhism spread rapidly across Mongolia  and soon the Gelugpa had won the spiritual allegiance of most of the Mongolian tribes. The name "Dalai Lama", by which the lineage later became known throughout the non-Tibetan world, was thus established and it was applied to the first two incarnations retrospectively.
Returning eventually to Tibet by a roundabout route and invited to stay and teach all along the way, in Sonam Gyatso was in Hohhot [or Ningxia ], not far from Beijing, when the Chinese Emperor invited him to his court. While there, a Ming court envoy came with gifts and a request to visit the Wanli Emperor but he declined having already agreed to visit Eastern Tibet next. Once there, in Kham , he founded two more great Gelugpa monasteries, the first in at Lithang where he left his representative before going on to Chamdo Monastery where he resided and was made Abbot.
Through Altan Khan, the 3rd Dalai Lama requested to pay tribute to the Emperor of China in order to raise his State Tutor ranking, the Ming imperial court of China agreed with the request.
Passing through Amdo , he founded a second great monastery, Kumbum , at the birthplace of Tsongkhapa near Kokonor. It was the first time a Dalai Lama had exercised such political authority. Receiving a second invitation from the Emperor in Beijing he accepted, but died en route in For a lifetime of only 45 years, his accomplishments were impressive and some of the most important ones were due to his relationship with Altan Khan.
He promised them he would be incarnated next in Mongolia, as a Mongolian. He studied at Drepung and became its abbot but being a non-Tibetan he met with opposition from some Tibetans, especially the Karma Kagyu who felt their position was threatened by these emerging events; there were several attempts to remove him from power. The death of the Fourth Dalai Lama in led to open conflict breaking out between various parties.
Then, the Panchen Lama , in Shigatse, negotiated the lifting of the ban, enabling the boy to be recognised as Lobsang Gyatso , the 5th Dalai Lama. Also in , the Tsangpa King, Karma Puntsok Namgyal, whose Mongol patron was Choghtu Khong Tayiji of the Khalkha Mongols , attacked the Gelugpa in Lhasa to avenge an earlier snub and established two military bases there to control the monasteries and the city.
This caused Sonam Rabten who became the 5th Dalai Lama's changdzo or manager,  to seek more active Mongol patronage and military assistance for the Gelugpa while the Fifth was still a boy. In fact, throughout the 5th's minority, it was the influential and forceful Sonam Rabten who inspired the Dzungar Mongols to defend the Gelugpa by attacking their enemies. During these years and for the rest of his life he died in , "there was little doubt that politically Sonam Chophel [Rabten] was more powerful than the Dalai Lama".
During the s Tibet was deeply entangled in rivalry, evolving power struggles and conflicts, not only between the Tibetan religious sects but also between the rising Manchus and the various rival Mongol and Oirat factions, who were also vying for supremacy amongst themselves and on behalf of the religious sects they patronised.
He died on the way, in  but his vassal Choghtu Khong Tayiji , continued to advance against the Gelugpas, even having his own son Arslan killed after Arslan changed sides, submitted to the Dalai Lama and become a Gelugpa monk.
By he had defeated Donyo Dorje and his allies in Kham and then he marched on Shigatse where after laying siege to their strongholds he defeated Karma Tenkyong , broke the power of the Tsang Karma Kagyu in and ended the Tsangpa dynasty. With his accomplices he seized Samdruptse fort at Shigatse and tried to raise a rebel army from Tsang and Bhutan, but the Dalai Lama skilfully foiled his plans without any fighting taking place and Norbu had to flee.
At an enthronement ceremony in Shigatse he conferred full sovereignty over Tibet on the Fifth Dalai Lama,  unified for the first time since the collapse of the Tibetan Empire exactly eight centuries earlier. The Mongols in Amdo became absorbed and Tibetanised. In the Manchus proclaimed their dynasty as the Qing dynasty and by they had completed their conquest of China under the prince regent Dorgon. In , after quelling a rebellion of Tibetans of Kansu-Xining, the Qing invited the Fifth Dalai Lama to visit their court at Beijing since they wished to engender Tibetan influence in their dealings with the Mongols.
The Qing were aware the Dalai Lama had extraordinary influence with the Mongols and saw relations with the Dalai Lama as a means to facilitate submission of the Khalka Mongols , traditional patrons of the Karma Kagyu sect. Similarly, since the Tibetan Gelugpa were keen to revive a priest-patron relationship with the dominant power in China and Inner Asia, the Qing invitation was accepted.
After five years of complex diplomatic negotiations about whether the emperor or his representatives should meet the Dalai Lama inside or outside the Great Wall, when the meeting would be astrologically favourable, how it would be conducted and so on, it eventually took place in Beijing in The Shunzhi Emperor was then 16 years old, having in the meantime ascended the throne in after the death of Dorgon.
For the Qing, although the Dalai Lama was not required to kowtow to the emperor, who rose from his throne and advanced 30 feet to meet him, the significance of the visit was that of nominal political submission by the Dalai Lama since Inner Asian heads of state did not travel to meet each other but sent envoys.
For Tibetan Buddhist historians however it was interpreted as the start of an era of independent rule of the Dalai Lamas, and of Qing patronage alongside that of the Mongols. When the 5th Dalai Lama returned, he was granted by the emperor of China a golden seal of authority and golden sheets with texts written in Manchu, Tibetan and Chinese languages. After correction, it read: "The one who resides in the Western peaceful and virtuous paradise is unalterable Vajradhara, Ocen Lama, unifier of the doctrines of the Buddha for all beings under the sky".
The words of the diploma ran: "Proclamation, to let all the people of the western hemisphere know". However, despite such patronising attempts by Chinese officials and historians to symbolically show for the record that they held political influence over Tibet, the Tibetans themselves did not accept any such symbols imposed on them by the Chinese with this kind of motive. For example, concerning the above-mentioned 'golden seal', the Fifth Dalai Lama comments in Dukula , his autobiography, on leaving China after this courtesy visit to the emperor in , that "the emperor made his men bring a golden seal for me that had three vertical lines in three parallel scripts: Chinese, Mongolian and Tibetan".
He also criticised the words carved on this gift as being faultily translated into Tibetan, writing that "The Tibetan version of the inscription of the seal was translated by a Mongol translator but was not a good translation". The first imprint of the seal was offered with prayers to the image of Lokeshvara The 17th-century struggles for domination between the Manchu-led Qing dynasty and the various Mongol groups spilled over to involve Tibet because of the Fifth Dalai Lama's strong influence over the Mongols as a result of their general adoption of Tibetan Buddhism and their consequent deep loyalty to the Dalai Lama as their guru.
Until , the Fifth Dalai Lama had mediated in Dzungar Mongol affairs whenever they required him to do so, and the Kangxi Emperor , who had succeeded the Shunzhi Emperor in , would accept and confirm his decisions automatically. For the Kangxi Emperor however, the alliance between the Dzungar Mongols and the Tibetans was unsettling because he feared it had the potential to unite all the other Mongol tribes together against the Qing Empire, including those tribes who had already submitted.
Therefore, in , the Kangxi Emperor, annoyed by the Fifth's less than full cooperation in quelling a rebellion against the Qing in Yunnan , ceased deferring to him as regards Mongol affairs and started dealing with them directly. In the same year, , the Dalai Lama, then at the height of his powers and conducting a foreign policy independent of the Qing, caused Mongol troops to occupy the border post of Dartsedo between Kham and Sichuan, further annoying the Kangxi Emperor who according to Smith already considered Tibet as part of the Qing Empire.
It also increased Qing suspicion about Tibetan relations with the Mongol groups and led him to seek strategic opportunities to oppose and undermine Mongol influence in Tibet and eventually, within 50 years, to defeat the Mongols militarily and to establish the Qing as sole 'patrons and protectors' of Tibet in their place. The time of the Fifth Dalai Lama, who reigned from to and founded the government known as the Ganden Phodrang , was a period of rich cultural development.
The same goes for the great increase in the number of foreign visitors thronging Lhasa during the period as well as for the number of inventions and institutions that are attributed to the 'Great Fifth', as the Tibetans refer to him. Writing on a wide variety of subjects he is specially noted for his works on history, classical Indian poetry in Sanskrit and his biographies of notable personalities of his epoch, as well as his own two autobiographies, one spiritual in nature and the other political see Further Reading.
The Fifth Dalai Lama died in Tibetan historian Nyima Gyaincain points out that the written wills from the fifth Dalai Lama before he died explicitly said his title and authority were from the Emperor of China, and he was subordinate of the Emperor of China.
He pretended the Dalai Lama was in retreat and ruled on his behalf, secretly selecting the 6th Dalai Lama and presenting him as someone else. Tibetan historian Nyima Gyaincain points out that Desi Sangye Gyatso wanted to consolidate his personal status and power by not reporting the death of the fifth Dalai Lama to the Emperor of China, and also collude with the rebellion group of the Qing dynasty, Mongol Dzungar tribe in order to counter influence from another Mongol Khoshut tribe in Tibet.
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This scenario changed with the enactment of Law 7, on 4 July. According to the Interunion Department for Parliamentary Assistance DIAPthe business and trade union lobbies in the National Congress include, respectively, and 60 members, including both deputies and senators DIAP,showing the relative inequality that exists between the forces in the legislature. Radiografia do novo Congresso: In order to contribute to a better understanding of the outsourcing phenomenon, this study has outlined the lengthy process to which the above-mentioned Bill of Law has been submitted. We therefore resorted to the usual forms of research logic used in the field of Critical Realism, as well as employing a hermeneutic approach to the perceptions provided by the different actors, by the Bill itself and by the literature under review. This latter Bill, introduced by federal deputy, Vicente da Silva, a leading figure in the history of the Brazilian trade union movement, has a completely contrary stance in the of the two points mentioned above for the former Bill.
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