KLASIFIKASI GRACILARIA PDF

Penggunaan shelter pada pendederan lobster Panulirus homarus dimaksudkan untuk menekan terjadinya stress dan menghasilkan tingkat kelangsungan hidup yang lebih tinggi. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis dan menentukan jenis shelter yang memberikan respon stress dan produktifitas benih lobster yang paling baik. Pada Penelitian ini digunakan empat perlakuan, perlakuan menggunakan shelter jaring , paralon, lubang angin dan kontrol tanpa shelter. Penelitian menunjukkan, perlakuan menggunakan shelter paralon merupakan yang terbaik karena terbukti mampu untuk menurunkan tingkat stress dan menghasilkan kelangsungan hidup yang lebih baik. Level Total Hemocycte Count THC dan glukosa pada sheltter paralon selama penelitian, menghasilkan respon stress yang lebih rendah dan stabil apabila dibanding dengan perlakuan lainnya. Blaxhall, P.

Author:Vok Goltilrajas
Country:Puerto Rico
Language:English (Spanish)
Genre:Literature
Published (Last):17 February 2011
Pages:145
PDF File Size:5.7 Mb
ePub File Size:8.75 Mb
ISBN:491-7-86315-664-8
Downloads:95917
Price:Free* [*Free Regsitration Required]
Uploader:Metaxe



Cultivation of the red algae Kappaphycus alvarezii in Brazil and its pharmacological potential. Directory of Open Access Journals Sweden. Full Text Available Kappaphycus alvarezii Rhodophyta, Gigartinales is a red algae widely cultivated as the main source of raw material for the carrageenan industry. This hydrocolloid is normally used in the food industry as a gelling and stabilizing agent. The facility of its commercial farming based on vegetative propagation promoted the success of the aquaculture of this macroalgae that consequently stimulated studies focusing on new potential uses of this resource.

This work presents a brief review of the studies related to K. Under dim light, yield II declined at first and then increas Under dim light, yield II declined at first and then increased on the fourth day. Under high light, yield II retained a stable value. These results indicate that K. Based on the PBP gene sequences, K. Many amino acid loci in PBP sequences of K. The diversities of PE and PC are proposed to have played some roles during the algal evolution and divergence of light adaption.

Photosystem II photochemistry and phycobiliprotein of the red algae Kappaphycus alvarezii and their implications for light adaptation. Chemical analysis and biorefinery of red algae Kappaphycus alvarezii for efficient production of glucose from residue of carrageenan extraction process.

Biorefineries serve to efficiently utilize biomass and their by-products. Algal biorefineries are designed to generate bioproducts for commercial use. Due to the high carbohydrate content of algal biomass, biorefinery to generate biofuels, such as bioethanol, is of great interest.

Carrageenan is a predominant polysaccharide hydrocolloid found in red macroalgae and is widely used in food, cosmetics, and pharmaceuticals. In this study, we report the biorefinery of carrageenan derived from processing of experimental strains of the red macroalgae Kappaphycus alvarezii. Specifically, the chemical composition and enzymatic hydrolysis of the residue produced from carrageenan extraction were evaluated to determine the conditions for efficient generation of carbohydrate bioproducts.

The productivity and growth rates of K. The yields of carrageenan and its residue were The residues from the brown and red strains were assessed to detect any potential bioproducts. The galactan, ash, protein, insoluble aromatics, and sulfate groups of the residue were reduced to comparable extents for the two strains. However, KOH treatment did not reduce the content of glucan in the residue from either strain. Temporal mismatch between induction of superoxide dismutase and ascorbate peroxidase correlates with high H2O2 concentration in seawater from clofibrate-treated red algae Kappaphycus alvarezii.

Algal cells have developed different strategies to cope with the common environmentally promoted generation of H 2 O 2 , which include induction of catalase CAT and ascorbate peroxidase APX , massive H 2 O 2 release in seawater, and synthesis of volatile halocarbons by specific peroxidases. The antioxidant adaptability of the economically important carrageenophyte Kappaphycus alvarezii Doty Doty Gigartinales: Rhodophyta was tested here against exposure to clofibrate CFB , a known promoter of peroxisomal beta-oxidation in mammals and plants.

The two H 2 O 2 -scavenging enzymes were only induced later after 72 h , whereupon CAT showed a dose-dependent response with increasing concentrations of CFB. The bulk of data suggests that K. Agardh Solieriaceae, Rhodophyta. DNA barcoding has been a major advancement in the field of taxonomy, seeing much effort put into the barcoding of wide taxa of organisms, macro and microalgae included. The mitochondrial-encoded cox1 and plastid-encoded rbcL has been proposed as potential DNA barcodes for rhodophytes, but are yet to be tested on the commercially important carrageenophytes Kappaphycus and Eucheuma.

This study gauges the effectiveness of four markers, namely the mitochondrial cox1, cox2, cox spacer and the plastid rbcL in DNA barcoding on selected Kappaphycus and Eucheuma from Southeast Asia. Marker assessments were performed using established distance and tree-based identification criteria from earlier studies. Barcoding patterns on a larger scale were simulated by empirically testing on the commonly used cox spacer. The phylogeny of these rhodophytes was also briefly described.

In this study, the cox2 marker which satisfies the prerequisites of DNA barcodes was found to exhibit moderately high interspecific divergences with no intraspecific variations, thus a promising marker for the DNA barcoding of Kappaphycus and Eucheuma.

However, the already extensively used cox spacer was deemed to be in overall more appropriate as a DNA barcode for these two genera. On a wider scale, cox1 and rbcL were still better DNA barcodes across the rhodophyte taxa when practicality and cost-efficiency were taken into account.

The phylogeny of Kappaphycus and Eucheuma were generally similar to those earlier reported. Still, the application of DNA barcoding has demonstrated our relatively poor taxonomic comprehension of these seaweeds, thus suggesting more in-depth efforts in taxonomic restructuring as well as establishment. A vanadium-dependent bromoperoxidase in the marine red alga Kappaphycus alvarezii Doty Doty displays clear substrate specificity.

Bromoperoxidase activity was initially detected in marine macroalgae belonging to the Solieriaceae family Gigartinales, Rhodophyta , including Solieria robusta Greville Kylin, Eucheuma serra J. Agardh and Kappaphycus alvarezii Doty Doty, which are important industrial sources of the polysaccharide carrageenan. Notably, the purification of bromoperoxidase was difficult because due to the coexistence of viscoid polysaccharides.

The activity of the partially purified enzyme was dependent on the vanadate ion, and displayed a distinct substrate spectrum from that of previously reported vanadium-dependent bromoperoxidases of marine macroalgae. The enzyme was specific for Br- and I- ions and inactive toward F- and Cl-.

The K m values for Br- and H2O2 were 2. The halogenated product, dibromoacetaldehyde, that accumulated in K. Kinetic study of the plastoquinone pool availability correlated with H2O2 release in seawater and antioxidant responses in the red alga Kappaphycus alvarezii exposed to single or combined high light, chilling and chemical stresses.

As an essential redox signal, the role of chloroplast-originated H 2 O 2 in the orchestration of overall antioxidant responses in algal species has thus been questioned. This work purported to study the kinetic decay profiles of the redox-sensitive plastoquinone pool correlated to H 2 O 2 release in seawater, parameters of oxidative lesions and antioxidant enzyme activities in the red alga Kappaphycus alvarezii under the single or combined effects of high light, low temperature, and sub-lethal doses of 3- 3,4-dichlorophenyl -1,1-dimethylurea DCMU and 2,5-dibromomethylisopropyl-p-benzoquinone DBMIB , which are inhibitors of the thylakoid electron transport system.

Within 24 h, high light and chilling stresses distinctly affected the availability of the PQ pool for photosynthesis, following Gaussian and exponential kinetic profiles, respectively, whereas combined stimuli were mostly reflected in exponential decays. These data suggest that the release of H 2 O 2 from plastids into seawater possibly impaired efficient and immediate responses of pivotal H 2 O 2 -scavenging activities of CAT and APX in the red alga K.

These facts provided a molecular basis for the recognized limited resistance of the red alga K. The properties of red seaweed Kappaphycus alvarezii and its effect on mammary carcinogenesis. The edible red seaweed Kappaphycus alvarezii is one of the algae species which was found to be rich in nutrients and nutraceutical.

Hence, K. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential compounds of K. For the anticancer effect of K. The experimental and untreated groups of rats were induced with mammary tumour with DMBA. The experimental group of rats was given with K. The results were being used to compare with the untreated group of rats and normal group of rats. All the rats were fed with standard diet and water ad libitum. Mortality, behavior changes and tumour sizes were observed specifically. For sub-chronic and heavy metal toxicity studies, no significant difference was found in haematological and biochemical values of the control group and experimental group.

The growth rate of tumours in the untreated group of rats was found significantly higher than the experimental group of rats. Besides that, the white blood cells level in untreated group was.

Red algae and their use in papermaking. Gelidialian red algae , that contain rhizoidal filaments, except the family Gelidiellaceae were processed to make bleached pulps, which can be used as raw materials for papermaking.

Red algae consist of rhizoidal filaments, cortical cells usually reddish in color, and medullary cells filled with mucilaginous carbohydrates. Red algae pulp consists of mostly rhizoidal filaments.

Red algae pulp of high brightness can be produced by extracting mucilaginous carbohydrates after heating the algae in an aqueous medium and subsequently treating the extracted with bleaching chemicals. In this study, we prepared paper samples from bleached pulps obtained from two red algae species Gelidium amansii and Gelidium corneum and compared their properties to those of bleached wood chemical pulps. Copyright Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Antibacterial activity of extracts of marine algae from the Red Sea of Sep 4, Dipeptides from the red alga Acanthopora spicifera.

An investigation of red alga Acanthophora spicifera afforded the known peptide, aurantiamide acetate and a new diastereoisomer of this dipeptide dia-aurantiamide acetate. This is a first report of aurantiamide acetate from a marine source Prebiotic evaluation of red seaweed Kappaphycus alvarezii using in vitro colon model.

The digested seaweed then fermented in a pH-controlled batch culture system inoculated with human faeces to mimic the distal colon. Bacterial enumeration were monitored using fluorescent in situ hybridisation, and the fermentation end products, the short chain fatty acids SCFA , were analysed using HPLC. Both seaweeds also showed significant increase in total SCFA production, particularly acetate and propionate.

Overall, this data suggested that K. Red algae Kappaphycus alvarezii contain flavonoids compound which has activity as an anti bacterial. This study aims to determine the difference of inhibition zone of the growth of Streptococcus mutans bacteria by seaweed methanol extract K. This research was conducted by post—test only design one-shot case study with a variable treatment of the seaweed methanol extract K. Extracts were then divided into 7 concentration of Pharmacological importance of sulphated polysaccharide carrageenan from red seaweed Kappaphycus alvarezii in comparison with commercial carrageenan.

These results indicated that native carrageenan from K. Native carrageenan exhibited an excellent anticancer activity on colon carcinoma cell lines These results clearly indicated the beneficial effect of native and commercial carrageenans as anticancer agents being a free radical scavenger.

The inhibitory effect depends on concentration of carrageenans and it was recorded that maximum Full Text Available Cassava, corn, sago and the other food crops have been commonly used as raw materials to produce green plastics. However, plastics produced from such crops cannot be tailored to fit a particular requirement due to their poor water resistance and mechanical properties.

ASSIMIL FRANCES DESCARGAR PDF

Worldwide Endangered Plants List

Language: English Russian. Red seaweed Gracilaria , one of the largest genus in Division Rhodophyta inhabits Sarawak coastal water. This study was designed to identify the species of Gracilaria using morphological approach and to assess selected water quality parameters in Gracilaria habitats. Three field samplings were carried out in Santubong and Asajaya, Sarawak from November to December

LA CONVIVENCIALIDADE PDF

A LECTURE SERIES ON THE SEA GRAPE- FLAVORING AGENTS FOR UNIVERSITI MALAYSIA SABAH

Bangia sp. Dokumentasi Pribadi, Lindeberg, - Divisio : Rhodophyta. Species : Chondrus crispus Gambar. Genus : Coralina Gambar.

Related Articles