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Antibodies against vesicular stomatitis virus in horses from southern, midwestern and northeastern Brazilian States. Vesicular stomatitis virus VSV is the agent of a vesicular disease that affects many animal species and may be clinically confounded with foot-and-mouth disease in ruminant and swine.
Horses are especially susceptible to VSV and may serve as sentinels for virus circulation. Several samples from the Northeast and Midwest harbored high neutralizing titers, indicating a recent exposure to the virus.
In contrast, samples from RS had low titers, possibly due to a past remote exposure. These results demonstrated a relatively recent circulation of VSIV-3 in northeastern Brazilian States, confirming clinical findings and demonstrating the sanitary importance of this infection.
Vesicular stomatitis virus VSV is a viral agent belonging to the order Mononegavirales , family Rhabdoviridae , genus Vesiculovirus. VSV naturally infects a variety of mammals including horses, cattle, swine, wild mammals and man. In most cases, the disease is self-limiting and the clinical course lasts approximately two to three weeks REIS JR et al.
According to the ICTV , there are the least 20 additional serotypes to be characterizated. Vesicular stomatitis VS usually presents a seasonal pattern, whose incidence is usually higher in summer or in rainy seasons MASON et al.
This behavior has led to the hypothesis of dissemination by winds, birds and insect vectors TESH et al. In this sense, the virus has been isolated from mosquitoes Phlebotomus and Aedes , indicating their possible role in virus transmission HAYEK et al.
Animal gathering in fairs, races, artificial insemination centers and other events seem to facilitate virus spread among susceptible animals OKUDA et al. VS in clinically undistinguishable from foot-and-mouth disease FMD , making critical its prompt differential diagnosis. In Brazil, positive serology to VSV has been detected in several states and different animal species. CUNHA et al. Considering the sanitary and economical importance of the disease, this study was designed to investigate circulation of VSV-3, through serology, in horses from three Brazilian regions: Southern, Midwestern and Northeast.
The cultures were monitored for citopathic effect cpe for 72h. Samples not presenting cpe were considered positive for VSV antibodies at the used dilution. Then, positive samples were submitted to a quantitative VN test, in which a fixed dose of virus TCID 50 was incubated with serial 2-fold dilutions of sera, starting at After 72h, the cultures were monitored for cpe and the VN titers were considered as the reciprocal of the highest serum dilution capable to prevent cpe.
The overall rate of seropositivity was High percentages of positive samples were observed in CE Since no comercial VSV vaccines are available in Brazil SINDAN, , positive serological response is obviously due to a previous exposure to the virus, reflecting different levels of virus circulation in the three regions. These results indicated that CE, RN and PB States presented a broader viral activity, in contrast with the viral circulation in the Midwest and Southern regions, whose immunological reaction probably reflects a low frequency and remote viral activity.
Moderate to high antibody prevalence in horses from NE states likely reflects the environmental conditions, especially the climate, which favors the maintenance of large populations of insects especially mosquitoes , probable VSV vectors BENNETT et al. Unfortunately, we could not test the samples against VSV Cocal because we could not obtain a virus of this serotype. Figure 1 presents the frequency and distribution of neutralizing titers by state. VSV infection is considered endemic in Brazilian northeastern States, where is probably under notified.
The present results validate this status because they indicated the circulation of VSV - likely serotype 3 - in horses from this region. Residual antibodies were detected, probably reflecting remote past exposure to the virus in RS. Because cattle is the most important host species for VSV infection - which it can be confounded with FMD, leading to serious sanitary consequences -, it would be interesting to investigate the presence and distribution of VSV antibodies in cattle of the studied regions.
In agreement with the latter work, our data indicates that VSV is already circulating in these regions. Our results reinforce the sanitary importance of this infection, contributing for its understanding, notification and control. Comparison of virus neutralisation and enzime-linked immunosorbent assay for the identification of antibodies against vesicular stomatitis Indiana 3 virus. Accessed: Feb.
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Serological epidemiology. Veterinary epidemiology. London: Butterworths, This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License. Como citar este artigo.
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