ERNST HAECKEL ECOLOGIA PDF

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Skip navigation. Ernst Heinrich Philipp August Haeckel was a prominent comparative anatomist and active lecturer in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.

Haeckel aggressively argued that the development of an embryo repeats or recapitulates the progressive stages of lower life forms and that by studying embryonic development one could thus study the evolutionary history of life on earth. His father and maternal grandfather were lawyers but they had little luck in convincing Haeckel to follow them in their professions.

Rather, he became interested in the natural sciences and plant collecting and prepared himself to study medicine. He immediately began practicing medicine but in decided to stop working with patients and turned instead to the study of marine organisms at Messina, in southern Italy. In Haeckel married his cousin Anne Sethe. She died in and in Haeckel married Agnes Huschke, with whom he had three children.

An accomplished artist and illustrator, Haeckel made many zoological expeditions that directly contributed to his illustrated descriptions of over four thousand new species of marine invertebrates. In Haeckel became a Privatdozent lecturer at the University of Jena and one year later was chosen extraordinary professor of comparative anatomy and director of the Zoological Institute.

He was appointed chair of zoology in and became colleagues with Wilhelm Roux and Hans Driesch. Haeckel remained at Jena until his retirement in Comparative anatomy and embryology flourished at Jena with the work of Haeckel and Carl Gegenbaur. After reading the German translation of Charles Darwin 's Origin of Species , Haeckel became an aggressive advocate of organic evolution. He was at the forefront of raising questions about evolutionary development and subsequently became a champion of evolution , not only for Darwin, but for many German scientists and citizens alike.

Phylogeny is a term coined by Haeckel in his first book, Generelle Morphologie der Organismen , a book he dedicated to the three authors that had most influenced his scientific life: Johann Goethe, Jean-Baptiste Lamarck, and Darwin.

Other terms introduced by Haeckel in Generelle Morphologie that are still in use today although their meaning has perhaps changed include monophyletic, polyphyletic, ecology, and Metazoa.

The biogenetic law had a substantial following in the s, a time when mechanistic mechanisms were used to explain the entire history of life.

Embryologists had shown that most metazoans pass through an early developmental stage called a gastrula , a hollow ball of cells that infold via cell migrations to form the gut of the organism.

Haeckel surmised that at one time, an organism that he called a gastraea existed, and that it looked like the gastrula stage of advanced organisms. Because the gastraea had left no paleontological trace, the only evidence for it was the gastrula stage in ontogeny. In illustrating taxonomic patterns and patterns of descent, Haeckel was the first to publish phylogenetic trees showing the evolution of man from lower organisms.

Later accused of doctoring his images to exaggerate the similarity of vertebrate embryos, Haeckel responded that because there were so few human embryos at his disposal, he had drawn his ideas and idealized them to prove his point. He admitted combining figures of species types to create thought-provoking images. Even today, arguments about whether Haeckel intentionally falsified his embryo drawings continue to fuel debates between evolutionists and creationists.

In monism, all organic and inorganic things, whether mind or matter, are ruled by materialistic scientific laws. A supernatural or spiritual world cannot coexist with a monistic world. In Haeckel became a member of the Thule Gesellschaft , some of whose members later became members of the early German Workers party, the forerunner of the Nazi Party.

After publishing his last scientific work in Kristallseelen and with his health failing, Haeckel sold his house in Jena to the Carl Zeiss Foundation, which transformed it into a museum dedicated to evolutionary theory. Haeckel died 9 August Keywords: Biography , Evolution.

Ernst Heinrich Philipp August Haeckel Ernst Heinrich Philipp August Haeckel was a prominent comparative anatomist and active lecturer in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Sources Bower, Peter J. Evolution: The History of an Idea. Los Angeles: University of California Press, DiGregorio, Mario. Gasman, Daniel. Hobfield, Uwe, and Lennart Olsson. Hopwood, Nick. Magner, Lois N. A History of the Life Sciences.

New York: Marcel Dekker Press, Oppenheimer, Jane M. Potts, George D. Chicago: University of Chicago Press , Printer-friendly version PDF version.

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Skip navigation. Ernst Heinrich Philipp August Haeckel was a prominent comparative anatomist and active lecturer in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Haeckel aggressively argued that the development of an embryo repeats or recapitulates the progressive stages of lower life forms and that by studying embryonic development one could thus study the evolutionary history of life on earth. His father and maternal grandfather were lawyers but they had little luck in convincing Haeckel to follow them in their professions. Rather, he became interested in the natural sciences and plant collecting and prepared himself to study medicine. He immediately began practicing medicine but in decided to stop working with patients and turned instead to the study of marine organisms at Messina, in southern Italy. In Haeckel married his cousin Anne Sethe.

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Ernst Heinrich Philipp August Haeckel (1834-1919)

Scarano 2. Publication date Print : March Journal: Brazilian Journal of Botany. An attempt to delineate rather than to precisely define what we mean by "ecophysiology" is based on a brief historical overview of what eventually led to development of instrumentation and sampling strategies for analyses that allow description of physiological performance in the field. These techniques are surveyed. Ecophysiology originally is aut-ecology dedicated to the behaviour of individual plants, species or higher taxa, viz.

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