Ethnopharmacological relevance: Aquilaria spp. Agarwood has also been used as a traditional medicine in Southeast Asian countries, Bangladesh and Tibet. Its common uses include the treatment of joint pain, inflammatory-related ailments, and diarrhoea, as well as a stimulant, sedative and cardioprotective agent. In this paper, we aim to provide an overview of the phytochemistry, ethnomedicinal use, pharmacological activities and safety of plant materials from Aquilaria spp. Materials and methods: Literature abstracts and full text articles from journals, books, reports and electronic searches Google Scholar, Elsevier, PubMed, Read Cube, Scopus, Springer, and Web of Science , as well as from other relevant websites, are surveyed, analysed and included in this review. Results: A literature survey of agarwood plant materials showed that they contain sesquiterpenes, 2 phenylethyl -4H-chromenone derivatives, genkwanins, mangiferins, iriflophenones, cucurbitacins, terpenoids and phenolic acids.

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Richter , K. Gembruch, G. Listed in Annex II B. Geographic distribution. Temperate Asia to Indomalesia. Growth rings, colour, grain, etc. Growth ring boundaries indistinct or absent.

Heartwood basically yellow, white or grey ; without streaks. Sapwood similar to heartwood colour. Wood light weight and soft. Interlocked grain absent. Hardwood vs softwood. Vessels pores. Wood diffuse-porous. Vessels pores in multiples; commonly in short 2—3 vessels radial rows, or in radial rows of 4 or more. Vessels small to medium 95— ; very few, or few 7- 13—16 Tyloses absent. Other deposits in heartwood vessels pores absent. Axial parenchyma. Axial parenchyma not visible. Rays narrow. Large rays commonly less than 1 mm high.

Storied structure. Storied structure absent. Resin canals. Normal resin canals absent. Included phloem. Included phloem present ; diffuse.

Physical and chemical tests. Heartwood not fluorescent. Water extract not fluorescent; colour shade of water extract colourless to brown. Ethanol extract not fluorescent; colour shade of ethanol extract yellow.

Splinter burns to full ash; colour of ash white to grey. Additional information. Aquilaria spp. Adlerholz, eaglewood. Transverse section ca. The material of these species is traded as small resin-impregnated chunks, so-called "nuggets", sold in different grades see illustration. The interactive key allows access to the character list, illustrations, full and partial descriptions, diagnostic descriptions, differences and similarities between taxa, lists of taxa exhibiting specified attributes, summaries of attributes within groups of taxa, and geographical distribution.

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Commercial timbers

One of the most precious plants on earth is genus Aquilaria which able to produce agarwood. Under this genus, there are more 15 species around the world where the population is dense in Asia region. Four main Aquilaria spp will be discussed; 1 Aquilaria Sinensis , 2 Aquilaria Malaccensis , 3 Aquilaria Crassna and 4 Aquilaria Subintegra which currently being researched for health applications. The review helped researcher to have the brief ideas on the pharmacological effects of agarwood. Request Permissions. Antihyperglycemic activity of agarwood leaf extracts in STZ-induced diabetic rats and glucose uptake enhancement activity in rat adipocytes.


Aquilaria spp

Richter and M. Nomenclature etc. Important species: Aquilaria crassna Pierre ex Lecomte. Description based on 4 specimens. Heartwood basically yellow. Sapwood colour similar to heartwood colour. Density 0.


Richter , K. Gembruch, G. Listed in Annex II B. Geographic distribution. Temperate Asia to Indomalesia.

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