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Postado por Nathalia Sautchuk Patricio 2 votos. Pois eh Ricardo Melhorou sim. The popularity of employing co-op students has also increased with employers in the private sector.
According to the National Commission for Cooperative Education, more than 80 percent of the top companies in the Fortune employ students through college co-op programs. Education, Cooperative, is a program that integrates classroom studies with paid, real-life work experience in a related field. As a result, students receive an academic degree and practical work experience. Originally designed for college-level students working toward a bachelor's degree, these programs received a considerable amount of interest in the s.
In the s, "co-op" programs declined due to increased academic requirements and budget cutbacks. Since the early s, there has been a resurgence of interest. Presently, they are offered at numerous two-year and four-year institutions. Similar programs offering classroom studies and time on the job have become popular in both vocational and traditional high schools. These provide students not bound for college with a smooth transition from school to work. The federal government has had an impact in this area.
This program serves as a bridge between classroom instruction and on-the-job training and at the same time introduces talented students to public service. Positions are available to students pursuing a high school diploma, a vocational or technical degree, an associate degree, a bachelor's degree, or a postgraduate degree. College students in these programs working toward a bachelor's degree characteristically commit to a period of study that goes beyond the standard four-year time-frame.
They alternate between their traditional studies and related on-the-job experience. Started in , the co-op program at Boston's Northeastern University, an often copied example, offers students a practice-oriented education that blends the strengths of a traditional liberal arts and sciences curriculum with an emphasis on professionally focused practical skills.
Values of the co-op system include the increased visibility and abilities of the student entering the job market, the easing of the student's college financial burden due to compensation for work, and the ability to comprehend learning on a more concrete level due to the exposure to the work environment. Values to the employer include the opportunity to view potential employees as they work in the co-op programs and the establishment of connections with colleges whose students will seek employment upon graduation.
One drawback of the co-op system is the fragmentation of liberal arts studies due to interruptions as the student goes to work. Less opportunity for continuity in extracurricular activities and college social life are also seen as negatives for the student. For the employer, drawbacks include the expense of training students who would not return after the co-op experience had been completed and the disruptions caused by the continual changing of members within the workforce.
Other related programs include summer internships, apprenticeships, and independent-study courses based on on-the-job experience. Hoberman, Solomon. Cooperative Education in the s. Re, Joseph M. Alexandria, Va. Page Tools. Animal Life. Business and Finance. Entertainment and Arts. Food and Cooking. History, Politics and Society.
Home and Garden. Law and Legal Issues. Literature and Language. Religion and Spirituality. See All Cooperative education is a structured method of combining secondary education with practical work experience. Research indicates that employers value job experience in their newly-hired workers  A cooperative education experience, commonly known as a "co-op", provides academic credit for structured job experience. Cooperative education is taking on new importance in helping young people to make the school-to-work transition , service learning , and experiential learning initiatives [ citation needed ].
While at Lehigh University at the beginning of the 20th Century, Herman Schneider - , engineer, architect, and educator, concluded that the traditional classroom was insufficient for technical students. Smollins Schneider observed that several of the more successful Lehigh graduates had worked to earn money prior to graduation. Gathering data through interviews of employers and graduates, he devised the framework for cooperative education About that time, Carnegie Technical School, now Carnegie Mellon University , opened and thereby minimized the need for Schneider's co-op plan in the region around Lehigh University.
However, in the University of Cincinnati appointed Schneider to their faculty, and later, , allowed him an experimental year to implement his plan.
Following that year, the University of Cincinnati gave him full permission for the co-op program. Schneider, beginning from the rank of Assistant Professor , would rise through the rank of Dean of Engineering - to become President of the University of Cincinnati, based largely upon the strength of the co-op program. Throughout his career, he was an advocate for the co-op framework. His thirty years of service to the University of Cincinnati are partly credited for that institution's worldwide fame.
The award is given annually to an outstanding educator from faculty or administration. In , seeing the possibility of co-op education, Northeastern University began using co-op in their engineering program, becoming only the second institution to do so in this country. By , Antioch College had adapted the co-op practices to their liberal arts curricula, for which reason many called co-op the "Antioch Plan.
In , Northeastern University emphasized its commitment to co-op by extending it to the College of Business Administration. As new colleges opened at Northeastern, such as the College of Liberal Arts and College of Education , they became co-op schools as well. By the s, Northeastern was the acknowledged leader in co-op education across the world, a distinction that remained throughout the s.
Smollins The idea took hold, and was followed by three more annual conventions. Auld In , the Ford and Edison Foundations commissioned a study of co-operative education, published as Work-study college programs; appraisal and report of the study of cooperative education, James Warner Wilson and Edward H Lyons, New York: Harper. Its membership comprises sponsoring corporations and organizations not individuals from academia and business.
By , about academic institutions used co-op education, in one form or another. Many were outside of engineering. The need for professional support of non-engineering programs became obvious, and the membership of ASEE, in , began the Cooperative Education Association.
To reflect its membership more accurately, it was eventually sometime in the s or early s named the Cooperative Education and Internship Association, it remains today as the professional association for co-operative education outside of ASEE.
Much of that early efforts of NCCE focused on lobbying and promotion of co-operative education. In , the federal Higher Education Act provided support specifically for co-operative education. Funding continued from the federal government through , when Congress ended its support of co-operative education. Carlson In , educators from Australia, Britain, Canada, and the United States Northeastern's President, Kenneth Ryder , met to discuss work-related programs in their respective countries.
In and , this group, headed by President Ryder, convened an international conference on cooperative education. In , several college and university presidents, educational specialists, and employers from around the world including Australia, Canada, Hong Kong, the Netherlands, the Philippines, the United States and the United Kingdom formed the World Council and Assembly on Cooperative Education to foster co-operative education around the world.
By , that Association boasted a membership of over 1, individuals from 43 different countries. From its beginnings in Cincinnati in , cooperative education has evolved into a program offered at the secondary and postsecondary levels in two predominant models Grubb and Villeneuve In one model, students alternate a semester of academic coursework with an equal amount of time in paid employment, repeating this cycle several times until graduation.
The parallel method splits the day between school usually in the morning and work afternoon. Thus, like school-to-work STW , the co-op model includes school-based and work-based learning and, in the best programs, "connecting activities" such as seminars and teacher-coordinator worksite visits.
These activities help students explicitly connect work and learning. Beyond informal and anecdotal evidence, however, a familiar refrain in the literature is the lack of well-done research that empirically demonstrates these benefits Barton ; Wilson, Stull, and Vinsonhaler Barton identifies some of the research problems for secondary co-op as follows: federal data collection on high school co-op enrollments and completions ceased in the s; some studies use data in which co-op was not isolated from other work experience programs.
Ricks et al. Another set of problems involves perceptions of the field and its marginalization. Because of its "vocational" association, co-op is not regarded as academically legitimate; rather, it is viewed as taking time away from the classroom Crow Experiential activities are not necessarily rewarded in postsecondary promotion and tenure systems, and co-op faculty may be isolated from other faculty Crow ; Schaafsma Despite the current emphasis on contextual learning, work is not recognized as a vehicle for learning Ricks et al.
Schaasfma and Van Gyn agree that the field places too much emphasis on placements rather than learning. Wilson, Stull, and Vinsonhaler also decry the focus on administration, logistics, placements, and procedures. In others, the co-op program may be viewed as an add-on and therefore is vulnerable to cost cutting Wilson et al.
Even where co-op programs are strong they can be threatened, as at Cincinnati Technical College when it became a comprehensive community college Grubb and Villeneuve or LaGuardia during a budget crisis Grubb and Badway For students, costs and time to degree completion may be deterrents to co-op participation Grubb and Villeneuve Despite these problems, there is optimism about the future of co-op education; "Social, economic, and historic forces are making cooperative education more relevant than ever" ibid.
Federal investments in school-to-work and community service have resulted in a number of initiatives designed to provide "learning opportunities beyond the classroom walls" Furco , p. Because this has always been a principle of co-op, the field is in a position to capitalize on its strengths and the ways it complements other experiential methods in the effort to provide meaningful learning opportunities for students.
To do this, however, cooperative education must be redesigned. For Wilson, Stull, and Vinsonhaler , a new vision involves conceiving, defining, and presenting co-op "as a curriculum model that links work and academics-a model that is based on sound learning theory" p. Ricks suggests affirming the work-based learning principles upon which co-op is based. These principles assert that cooperative education fosters self-directed learning, reflective practice, and transformative learning; and integrates school and work learning experiences that are grounded in adult learning theories.
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