GEANT is the name of a series of simulation software designed to describe the passage of elementary particles through matter, using Monte Carlo methods. GEANT3 was, however, still in use by some experiments for some time thereafter. GEANT-3 was used by a majority of high energy physics experiments from the late s to the early s. It was also a key tool in the design and optimization of the detectors of all experiments at the Large Hadron Collider LHC — see e. A related but separate product is Geant4 when referring to this version, the name is typically no longer capitalized. Geant4 was developed by the RD44 collaboration in — and is being maintained and improved now by the Geant4 international collaboration.
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Copyright and any other appropriate legal protection of these computer programs and associated documentation. These programs or documentation may not be reproduced by any method without prior written consent. Permission for the usage of any programs described herein is granted apriori to those scientific institutes. CERN welcomes comments concerning the Geant code but undertakes no obligation for the maintenance. As the scale and complexity of High Energy Physics experiments increase, simulation studies require more.
GEANT is a system of detector description and simulation tools that help physicists in such studies. General information concerning GEANT , for example access to the source code, the list of problems and. The first version of GEANT was written in as a bare framework which initially emphasised tracking.
The system has been developed with some. New versions may differ from the previous ones. Some of the modifications may lead to backward incompatibilities. It is of course impossible to mention all of them, and new names are. Glenn Patrick RAL implemented a first version of the electromagnetic processes.
Tony Baroncelli Roma. Federico Carminati contributed to the. Francis has been, for many years,. Michel, together with Elemer. Lazlo has spent a considerable amount of time in. Federico Carminati coordinated the development of the versions 3. After he has enhanced the power of the geometry package and the performance of the tracking for.
Many people contributed their work or their experience. We have tried to acknowledge their names in the. Banerjee contribution to the tracking package , R.
Jones contribution to the simulation of electromagnetic. Lynch contribution to the multiple. Tchernyaev original code for hidden-line removal graphics , J. Salt original. Ravndal did a complete revision and update of the full documentation for the release of GEANT version.
Their patience in explaining the internals of. Another special thanks goes to Mike Metcalf, who helped to improve the English and the structure of the. Any reader who is not familiar with GEANT should first have a glance at the notes numbered to in.
Despite our efforts, the documentation is still incomplete and far from perfect. We accept full responsibility. Since version 3. FLUKA is a standalone code with its own life. They usually. It is important that GEANT users are aware of the conditions at which this code has been kindly made available:. Users are invited to notify any correction or. The list is accessible to all users who have an.
To subscribe to the list from a BITnet node a user has to send the following. Together with the GEANT library comes a correction cradle see section on maintenance policy which contains. This file is accessible to. This constant evolution, which is one of the reasons for the. This scheme does not.
It is therefore appropriate to. In this way the users will have to change their procedure to. On the other hand, the new user should not bother about version numbers and correction files, and so an. If, on. When problems are discovered, which may seriously affect the validity of the results of the simulation,.
To minimise network transfer for remote. The cmz source files contain the full history of the corrections applied with proper versioning, so that every. Users at CERN should not need to use the correction cradle other than. Remote users may want to obtain the cradle and apply the corrections. The correction cradle for the OLD version is available but has to be considered.
This document has been produced using L ATEX 2 with the cernman and cerngeant style options, developed. A printable version of each of the sections described in this manual can be obtained as. You can look in the directory described in. For instance, if you want to transfer the description of the physics. The present documentation is divided into sections which follow the structure of GEANT and its major functions. Each section is identified by a keyword which indicates its content.
Sections are in alphabetical order:. Within each section, the principal system functions or the details of subroutines are described in a series. In the upper left corner it is indicated in which Geant release the. Documentation is essential, but sometime implies a not negligeable amount of. When relevant these contributions are acknowledged here. In addition all reported bugs, accepted. Subroutines which are not necessary for an understanding of the program flow and which are not intended.
The notation [nnn] is used whenever additional information can be found in the quoted section. For convenience, two more sections have been added: the section AAAA, for general introductory information. A table of contents is available in AAAA To ease access to this documentation an index appears in. A short write up of GEANT can be obtained by collecting the papers numbered to in each section. Brun, R. Brun, and F. CodeME S. Simulation of hadronic showers, physics and applications.
Ferrari J. Ranft P. Sala G. Stevenson and J. In Proceedings of the. Birattari E. DePonti A. Esposito A. Ferrari M. Pelliccioni and M.
Measurements and characterization. Aarnio, A. Ferrari, J. Moehring, J. Ranft, P. Sala, G. FLUKA: hadronic benchmarks and applications. In MC93 Int. Proceedings in press. Ferrari and P. Innocente, M. Maire, and E. Brun, M.
GEANT manual - Writeups - Cern