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Antivenom reversal of biochemical alterations induced by black scorpion Heterometrus fastigiousus Couzijn venom in mice.

Directory of Open Access Journals Sweden. Subsequently, mortality was observed after 24 hours. Minimum effective dose MED was SAV effectiveness to reverse HFV-induced biochemical alterations in mice was analyzed by challenge method.

After four hours, changes in serum glucose, free amino acids, uric acids, pyruvic acid, cholesterol, total protein, alkaline phosphatase, acid phosphatase, lactic dehydrogenase and glutamate-pyruvate transaminase enzyme level were determined. A new toxin, named HsTX1, has been identified in the venom of Heterometrus spinnifer Scorpionidae , on the basis of its ability to block the rat Kv1. HsTX1 has been purified and characterized as a residue peptide reticulated by four disulphide bridges. The amidated and carboxylated forms of HsTX1 were synthesized chemically, and identity between the natural and the synthetic amidated peptides was proved by mass spectrometry, co-elution on C18 HPLC and blocking activity on the rat Kv1.

The disulphide bridge pattern was studied by 1 limited reduction-alkylation at acidic pH and 2 enzymic cleavage on an immobilized trypsin cartridge, both followed by mass and sequence analyses.

Three of the disulphide bonds are connected as in the three-disulphide-bridged scorpion toxins, and the two extra half-cystine residues of HsTX1 are cross-linked, as in Pi1. HsTX1 is a potent inhibitor of the rat Kv1. Scorpion fish sting. Scorpion fish are members of the family Scorpaenidae, which includes Insects and Scorpions. Stinging or biting insects include bees, wasps, hornets, and fire ants. The health effects of stinging or biting insects or scorpions range Scorpion image segmentation system.

Death as a result of scorpion sting has been a major public health problem in developing countries. Despite the high rate of death as a result of scorpion sting, little report exists in literature of intelligent device and system for automatic detection of scorpion. This paper proposed a digital image processing approach based on the floresencing characteristics of Scorpion under Ultra-violet UV light for automatic detection and identification of scorpion.

The acquired UV-based images undergo pre-processing to equalize uneven illumination and colour space channel separation. The extracted channels are then segmented into two non-overlapping classes. It has been observed that simple thresholding of the green channel of the acquired RGB UV-based image is sufficient for segmenting Scorpion from other background components in the acquired image. Two approaches to image segmentation have also been proposed in this work, namely, the simple average segmentation technique and K-means image segmentation.

The proposed algorithm has been tested on over 40 UV scorpion images obtained from different part of the world and results obtained show an average accuracy of The proposed 1system will eliminate the problem associated with some of the existing manual approaches presently in use for scorpion detection.

Scorpion sting in Zimbabwe. There was cardiac involvement, and African scorpionism defined as systemic symptoms and signs following Scorpionism in South Africa.

Systemic symptoms and signs developed Number of patients. Prominent symptoms and signs of scorpionism documented in this case series.

Plant Protection Research Institute, Pretoria for refer- ence purposes. The specimen identified as P. Peptide toxins from scorpion venoms constitute the largest group of toxins that target the voltage-gated potassium channel Kv.

Spinoxin SPX isolated from the venom of scorpion Heterometrus spinifer is a residue peptide neurotoxin cross-linked by four disulfide bridges. SPX is a potent inhibitor of Kv1.

Here we synthesized 25 analogues of SPX and analyzed the role of each amino acid in SPX using alanine scanning to study its structure-function relationships.

All synthetic analogues showed similar disulfide bond pairings and secondary structures as native SPX. Alanine replacements at Lys 23 , Asn 26 , and Lys 30 resulted in loss of activity against Kv1. These results suggest that the side chains of these amino acids in SPX play an important role in its interaction with Kv1.

In particular, Lys 23 appears to be a key residue that underpins Kv1. Of these seven amino acid residues, four are basic amino acids, suggesting that the positive electrostatic potential on the surface of SPX is likely required for high affinity interaction with Kv1.

This study provides insight into the structure-function relationships of SPX with implications for the rational design of new lead compounds targeting potassium channels with high potency.

Clinical update on scorpion envenoming. Full Text Available Abstract: Scorpion stings are currently the leading cause of venom-related injury to humans in Brazil and are a significant public health problem globally.

Only scorpions of the Tityus genus are of medical importance in Brazil, and Tityus serrulatus is responsible for the most serious envenomations and deaths. The toxic effects of scorpion envenomation are due to a massive release of sympathetic and parasympathetic neurotransmitters; the severity is related to cardiac and hemodynamic changes, with cardiogenic shock and pulmonary edema contributing to the main causes of death.

Currently, the clinical data point to catecholamine excess as the cause for reversible scorpion cardiomyopathy. These data include electrocardiographic changes, profiling of cardiac enzymes and troponin I, echocardiographic data with global or regional left ventricle dysfunction, and myocardial perfusion alterations compatible with spasm in the coronary microcirculation. Furthermore, recent data on cardiac magnetic resonance imaging findings, which are similar to those observed for stress-induced cardiomyopathy, have also been linked to catecholamine excess.

The efficiency of antivenom serum treatment is controversial in the literature. Our experience in Brazil is that the management of patients with systemic manifestations of scorpion stings is based on three approaches, all of which are extremely important. These include symptomatic treatment, antivenom serum, and cardiorespiratory support. Lateral medullary syndrome after a scorpion sting.

The sting of Mesobuthus tamulus belonging to the Buthidae family is known for being fatal. The toxidrome of scorpion sting is known for its effect on the cardiovascular system, and there have been rare reports of cerebrovascular accidents as well. We describe a case of lateral medullary syndrome secondary to scorpion sting. As per the knowledge of the authors, this is the first case report of the same.

A profile of scorpionism , including the species of scorpions involved, in the State of Amazonas, Brazil. Information on the scorpion species involved was obtained from the Amazonas State health units. Some municipalities e. Most species Scorpion envenomation in children and its management.

Full Text Available Introduction: The present study was aimed to describe our experience with epidemiological characteristics, management options, and outcome of scorpion envenomation in children.

The epidemiologic details including geographical locality of the event, age distribution, gender, and sting sites were noted in all hospitalized children with scorpion bite injury. Results: During the study period, a total 52 children were managed for scorpion sting. Mean age was 8. Male children were commoner victims of scorpion sting.

Scorpion sting had bimodal pattern. Prazocin was used in 25 children. There was evidence of pulmonary edema in 23 cases. Seven patients required elective ventilation, and 5 of them could be weaned off within 72 hours. Mean hospital stay was 3. Two children expired in the present series. Conclusion: In present study, there was bimodal distribution of the scorpion sting cases, male children were more affected, and almost all of them improved with good outcome.

We did not use anti-venin in the present study. The data from the study will serve not only to create heightened public awareness about scorpion envenomation but also to develop public awareness strategies and preventive measures. Death due to scorpion sting occurs in all parts of the country. Mortality from scorpion sting depends on various factors such as scorpion species, age of the stung per-son, stung body site and geographical area.

Considering the fact that so far no research on the fauna and epidemiological aspect of scorpion stings has been done in Hamadan city, we con-ducted this research. In order to investigate cases of scor-pion stings, we referred to the health center of Hamadan province and using questionnaires, we collected data related to the patients during The data were analyzed by SPSS software. Results: A total of 98 collected scorpion species named Mesobuthus eupeus, Androctonus crassicauda, Odontobuthus doriae and Razianus zarudnyi Family: Buthidae, were identified.

Mesobuthus eupeus species with Totally, cases of scorpion sting were documented in the Health Center of Hamadan Prov-ince, including The results of this study showed that most cases of scorpion stings in the age group of 25 to 34 years, in in July and in the rural areas were The most stung organs were hands, with Conclusion: Due to the low-risk species of scorpions in the region and lack of mortality reports in the past few years, it is recommended to revise administering anti- scorpion serum in the health centers.

North American snake and scorpion envenomations. Envenomations by snakes and scorpions in North America, although uncommon, do occur, and the victims may seek medical treatment. Combined, snake and scorpion encounters result in more than 25, calls a year to poison centers.

Although some similarities exist with respect to general signs of envenomation and treatment, specific nuances distinguish the medical care to be anticipated and therapies available. Regardless of geographic practice area, exposures will occur that may result in a significant envenomation. This article provides critical care nurses with fundamental knowledge of varied snake and scorpion envenomation presentations and treatments to assist in optimizing patient outcomes. All rights reserved.

Scorpion envenomation and its management in adults.

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Cardiac Extracellular Matrix

Antivenom reversal of biochemical alterations induced by black scorpion Heterometrus fastigiousus Couzijn venom in mice. Directory of Open Access Journals Sweden. Subsequently, mortality was observed after 24 hours. Minimum effective dose MED was SAV effectiveness to reverse HFV-induced biochemical alterations in mice was analyzed by challenge method. After four hours, changes in serum glucose, free amino acids, uric acids, pyruvic acid, cholesterol, total protein, alkaline phosphatase, acid phosphatase, lactic dehydrogenase and glutamate-pyruvate transaminase enzyme level were determined. A new toxin, named HsTX1, has been identified in the venom of Heterometrus spinnifer Scorpionidae , on the basis of its ability to block the rat Kv1.

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