Like many herbs, cilantro Coriandrum sativum is native to the Mediterranean area but has been spread wide across the world. Today, the herb is prominent especially in Asian and South American cooking. The spice coriander is the seed of cilantro, although the two do not taste similar. Most people will experience either a cool, fresh taste or an unpleasant soap taste.
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Growth, production and water consumption of coriander in hydroponic system using brackish waters. Mairton G. Itamar de S. Tales M. Hans R. Geocassia de O. Jozelmo de S. Cruz das Almas, BA. E-mail: mairtong hotmail. Pojuca, BA.
E-mail: itamar25souza gmail. E-mail: geocassia. Quixabeira, BA. E-mail: jozelmopinho gmail. An experiment was carried out in an adapted DFT deep film technique hydroponic system in PVC pipes to evaluate the growth, production and water consumption of coriander cv.
The experiment was carried out in a randomized block design with five replicates, in a 2 x 4 factorial scheme, totaling 40 plots. Two intervals of nutrient solution recirculation 0. At 25 days after transplanting DAT , the reductions in plant height and in the shoot fresh and dry matter of the bunch were 2.
Despite the reductions in growth and production, saline stress did not cause any damage to the visual aspect of coriander. The accumulated water consumption for the periods of and DAT significantly decreased by 5. In the semi-arid region of Northeast Brazil there is great availability of waters with high salt concentrations, which are not viable to be used in the irrigation of most crops. To minimize such problem, studies have proposed the hydroponic technique soilless cultivation to use brackish waters prohibited in the conventional system.
According to Soares et al. This research line has been limited to crops that are currently important in hydroponic markets, such as lettuce Soares et al. However, crops of regional interest must be investigated, especially coriander, because it has attractive prices to the producer, a place in the market of the Northeast region and tolerates high temperatures better than other vegetables Silva et al.
NFT is an active system which assumes pumping for nutrient solution recirculation, performing irrigations usually at 0. In this system, roots remain submersed in the nutrient solution and, because of this advantage, it is possible to increase the intervals between recirculations, which must be investigated for each crop. The present study aimed to evaluate the growth, production and water consumption of coriander cv.
The experimental design was randomized blocks, in 2 x 4 factorial scheme, with five replicates, in a total of 40 plots.
The experiment evaluated two intervals of nutrient solution recirculation 0. The ECw levels of 2. The structure comprised 20 leveled benches 0. Each plot was represented by an independent hydroponic channel, composed of a L plastic tank containing 53 L of nutrient solution and a watt electric pump to recirculate the solution to the cultivation channel Figure 1C.
The tanks were daily replenished using a graduated cylinder, which allowed to measure the water consumption per plot. Seeds of coriander cv. Twelve seeds were planted in each cup and then covered with vermiculite up to the top. The bottom parts of the cups were cut for the root system to pass. After germination, seedlings were manually irrigated using public-supply water ECw 0. The nutrient solution used was proposed by Furlani et al. Nutrient solutions were prepared with the water from the respective treatments ECw 0.
After adding the nutrients, the resulting electrical conductivities of the solution ECsol were 2. Along the experiment, ECsol and pH were monitored using a benchtop conductivity meter and a portable pH meter, respectively. Harvests were carried out at 20 and 25 days after transplanting DAT. In each plot, three coriander bunches were collected, each one containing 12 plants, to determine: plant height and shoot fresh matter. Plant height was measured using a tape measure from the point of cut collar region up to the apex.
Water consumption was calculated based on the volume consumed in the plot divided by the number of bunches in the plot, for periods of and DAT. The data were subjected to analysis of variance by F test; means relative to the recirculation intervals were compared by Tukey test at 0.
Silva et al. At 20 DAT, in the follow-up analysis of the interactions ECw and recirculation intervals the reductions per unit increase of ECw dS m -1 were equal to 4. Since the interest is not dry matter production, the production based on fresh matter was emphasized, which is the usual form of coriander marketing. In general, the maximum reduction in PH estimated by the linear model was 6. Under extreme conditions of salinity, the reduction was equal to 7.
Greater reductions in SFM bunch demonstrate that the effect of salinity was more drastic on the production based on fresh matter. These reductions in coriander leaf weight were not only due to the decrease of the growth in height, but also to the decline in stem diameter and leaf size leaf area.
Corroborating the present study, Cazuza Neto et al. In that study, the coriander cv. In the hydroponic cultivation, the responses of crops to salinity greatly depend on the type of strategy employed to utilize these waters. In the study of Silva et al.
This demonstrates that, under saline stress conditions, the strategy of the coriander plant is to reduce leaf size and not to completely stop producing the leaves. The divergence between the results of the different studies can be attributed to the different cultivation conditions as well as to the period of plant exposure to saline stress.
According to Andriolo et al. As a consequence, a more negative result can be expected in the effect of salinity on the yields of crops cultivated in the summer.
Such assertion demonstrates that studies on salinity, when conducted under hydroponic conditions, despite the fact that the responses of crops are confirmedly better than in conventional systems, should be repeated under contrasting climate conditions and for different cultivars of the same species. At salinity level of 0. In the follow-up analysis of the ECw levels for each interval, SFM bunch production was estimated by the linear models as Five days after the first evaluation at 25 DAT Figure 2D , there was higher SFM bunch production for the 2-h interval, which led to the absence of significant interaction, and a production of The SFM bunch production obtained in the present study is consistent with those reported in other studies under hydroponic conditions.
The strategy of two harvests along the experiment allowed to identify the best period for plant harvest. Since coriander is commercialized based on fresh matter, with highest production obtained at 25 DAT, it is more advantageous to maintain plants in the hydroponic system during this period. However, it should be pointed out that plants harvested at 20 DAT had enough size to be marketed, despite the lower volume of fresh matter.
Therefore, if the consuming market needs the product earlier, more than one bunch of plants can be put together to reach the standard volume of commercialization, as a strategy.
Cumulative water consumption decreased by 5. In the study of Cazuza Neto et al. In DFT system in pipes, Silva et al. In the work of Silva et al. Hydroponic cultivation, for requiring smaller water volume compared with the conventional planting, can be implemented in sites with low water availability, where it is not possible to use irrigation, besides the possibility of using marginal waters prohibited in the conventional planting, which is consistent with the reality of small producers from rural communities in the Brazilian semi-arid region.
With this advantage, the producer can utilize various strategies depending on the source of water available. Since the rains are concentrated in some months of the year, the knowledge on crop water requirement can be used to calculate the water volume needed to maintain the production of each month.
Thus, one option would be to store rainwater to meet the production in the dry period and another option would be the direct use of brackish waters available in wells perforated in this region.
If the salt concentrations in these waters are very high, they can be mixed with rainwater to reduce salinity and, consequently, the damages to plants.
Water with salinity of up to 7. Cumulative water consumption of coriander was equal to 0. The interval of 2 h between nutrient solution recirculations can be adopted without losses in coriander production, leading to reduction in electricity consumption. Alves, M. Andriolo, J. Tolerance to salinity of chicory plants grown in hydroponics. Cazuza Neto, A. Cova, A. Content of inorganic solutes in lettuce grown with brackish water in different hydroponic systems. Furlani, P. Campinas: IAC, Paulus, D.
Revista Ceres, v. Irriga, v. Tolerance of coriander cultivars under saline stress. African Journal of Agricultural Research, v. Water use efficiency of coriander produced in a low-cost hydroponic system. Silva, M. Frequency of recirculation of the nutrient solution in the hydroponic cultivation of coriander with brackish water.
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