Instagram photo Websta Webstagram. German Architecture. Beautiful Architecture. Beautiful World. Beautiful Places. North Rhine Westphalia.
|Published (Last):||3 May 2006|
|PDF File Size:||19.53 Mb|
|ePub File Size:||4.85 Mb|
|Price:||Free* [*Free Regsitration Required]|
Posta un commento. Pagine Home page Tesi del prof. The onsite technical readings were performed by geologist Massimiliano Mazzocca, owner of GeoPro, a company based in Perugia.
The research performed by prof Giovanni Carnevale over the past twenty years has by now ascertained that Aquisgrana and its Cappella Palatina are not in Aachen, Germany, but in the Picene region, in the Chienti Valley. Charlemagne passed away years ago, on January 28th, and the search for his tomb has always been centered in Aachen, however with no results.
All the sources available to us are in agreement in stating that the burial of the King took place in Aquisgrana, in the area of his new splendid Chapel that he had built around , even if someone, as reported by Einhard, had suggested to bring him elsewhere. Being born in Corridonia, where San Claudio is erected, I have always had a keen interest in the local events that took place during the early Middle Ages.
I have always maintained a friendly relationship with prof. Carnevale, my own teacher during my high school years, and I have followed passionately his studies concerning the presence of Aquisgrana and the Carolingian kings in the Chienti Valley.
I would like to extend my heartfelt gratitude to my dear professor, whose advice and counsel, both as an archeologist and a historian, have been a huge help.
Getting back to Charlemagne, I believe that this job has a fundamental merit: the details of the sources, already well known to the scholars, take on a demonstrative strength, since they are supported by archeological data, meaning that the discovery of the tomb is in agreement with the statements in the documents consulted, particularly the Chronicon Novalicense. Aachen no longer has the right to claim a title that it does not deserve.
This detail supports the thesis that Aquisgrana is in the Chienti Valley, a thesis that was bravely and firmly maintained through many years of work and research by Prof. Giovanni Carnevale. The search was extended to the interior of the church. The results are detailed in the technical report which I will discuss in a future publication. Let me mention other inaccuracies that have upset the landscape and therefore the historical understanding of the early Middle Ages: the notions that Gallia was the same thing as France in the Picene region, that Urbs was synonym of ancient Rome and that the Papal Lateran was itself in Rome instead of being in the Picene region.
It is documented that Otto III died in in Italy and was buried in the same Aquisgrana chapel where Charlemagne was already buried. This is another absurd misunderstanding that needs to be clarified.
The search with the georadar was performed on February 1st, with the permission of the new pastor, rev. Gianni Dichiara. The search readings were performed by Dr.
Massimiliano Mazzocca, owner of GeoPro, who has recently sent to us the full report that can be found in the appendix.
The popular belief was dismantled by a group of archeologists who have spent three years looking without success for any trace of the burial of the emperor who died in A. Andreas Schaub, the archeologist who was leading the research, still maintains that "he is certain that Charlemagne was buried in Aquisgrana and certain that this took place in the area of the cathedral".
Charlemagne died in the morning of January 28th, and was buried the same day. Alberto Morresi, an engineer and president of Centro Studi San Claudio al Chienti, decided to perform a search of the San Claudio area using the georadar. Once the search was completed, prof. Giovanni Carnevale was asked to participate in the compilation of this work, which is a collaboration of prof. Carnevale and Dr.
Charlemagne died on January 28th, in Aquisgrana and, according to all the sources at our disposal, the grave in which he was entombed was in the area of the Carolingian chapel in Aquisgrana. At first, there was some uncertainty as to where it was supposed to be placed, since he never gave specific directions while he was still alive.
In any case, everyone agreed that there was no more deserving place for his burial than the basilica that he himself had built at his own expense in the same village, for the love of God and of our Lord Jesus Christ, and in honor of His holy and eternal Virgin mother. Aquisgrana was located in the Chienti Valley as demonstrated in a series of publications written by prof. There were some doubts as to where the body of the deceased emperor should be buried.
Some would have liked to bury him in the new Palatine Chapel, known as sancta Maria Mater Domini, as reported by Einhard. Those tombs were recently discovered still in perfect state, as described in the book by prof. After the funereal march, from the imperial Domus to the Chapel, attended by all the people, the body, lotum et curatum, and that is to say embalmed, was entombed right away, on the same day of his death.
Einhard reports that he was entombed in the basilica, so to suggest a tomb inside San Claudio as it is today. However, in there used to be an atrium or xistum on the outside just before the entrance which was an integral part of the basilica itself.
As confirmed by the results of the georadar search, Charlemagne was entombed in the ground at the right of the entrance, and therefore inside or in the atrium of the church, which is defined as xistum by Widukind in his book Rerum gestarum saxonicarum libri tres. So, the burial took place in the church proper. Louis the Pious, on his return from Aquitaine, approved the existing burial, but he added a golden arch, arcus deauratus, to the facade, supra tumulum, as explained by Einhard, even if this grandiose archway is called a solium in other sources because today it is surmounted by the throne in Aachen.
He was not lying down as is customary with the bodies of other dead people, but he was seated on a throne as if he were alive. He had a golden crown on his head and held a sceptre in his hands covered by gloves which his fingernails, as they grew, had perforated. When we reached the tugurium where Charle was, right away we made an opening breaking down the wall.
And when we entered we smelled a very strong odor. We honored him by promptly bending our knees to the ground. Otto III quickly put a white robe on him, cut his fingernails and cleaned up around him. His limbs had not decomposed yet, only the tip of his nose was slightly corroded which he had promptly repaired with gold, and after extracting a tooth from his mouth, he had the opening in the small tugurium tuguriolum closed and then left.
As a matter of fact, the Count of the Palace Otho of Lomello certainly does not describe a regal tomb, instead he tells us about a very small setting that could be built in just a few hours, surmounted by a posh archway or solium that was added later. Geologist Massimiliano Mazzocca gives us the dimensions provided by the georadar which lead us to envision a setting similar to a cube as described in the footnote.
The data provided by the georadar seem to match perfectly with the description in cronicon novalicense The tiny room could have been built very easily in just one day and, considering the room at the base and the curved covering over the head, it was perfectly suited to contain the seated body of Charlemagne, just like an elegant marble coffer.
The tomb of Charlemagne, as we can see, remained untouched until the year when Otto III had it reopened. With him the empire entered a period of crisis, since during his reign, it became increasingly difficult to face the attacks from the Arabs along the coastlines, as described in the antopodosis of Claudio from Turin. Besides Rome, the seat of the papacy, the most relevant abbeys iuris palatii were in Farfa, Montecassino and San Vincenzo al Volturno.
Louis the Pious died in and the crisis deepened. The Arabs, once Sicily had been conquered, permanently occupied the towns of Taranto and Bari, and set their sights on expanding north, moving up the old Appian road. The papacy moved their seat from Rome to the Lateran in Aquisgrana, while the two abbeys iuris palatii located south of Aquisgrana were sacked by the Arabs in In the same year, Picene France along with Aquisgrana was attacked and sacked.
In , Farfa, completely isolated, was abandoned by the Benedictine monks that had built in Picene France the fortified abbey Santa Vittoria in Matenano. Lothair arose to power in and inherited an empire in shambles, by now divided in three parts, Germany, Gallia and Italy, which still today make up the base of western Europe.
On August 7th, , Otto I had himself crowned king of the Romans on the tomb of Charlemagne, who had by now become a mythical figure, and marked the beginning of a new setting of the empire in the Picene region, with a Saxon dynasty. Relating to his crowning on the solium, we have a very interesting description made by Widukind in his book: Rerum Saxonicarum libri tres.
I will quote some of the most meaningful passages, from the translation given by prof. Once arrived there and once all the Greats of the kingdom and all the other chiefs had gathered, and the leaders of the army, in the gallery in sixto in front of the Chapel of Charlemagne, the king-elect was placed on the solium that was built there, was acclaimed as king and, - according to the Saxon ritual — they shook his hand, they swore loyalty to him, they pledged their help against all enemies.
While the Greats and all the other chiefs were doing this, the bishop with all the clergy and the people were in the basilica below waiting for the entrance of the new king… There is no doubt that the description of the basilica given by Widukind matches many of the features of present day San Claudio which is rotundum facta as well.
The modern day church is divided in two storeys, however the central cross-shaped vault, that today separates the entire building into two storeys, is completely different and more recent than the remaining vaults especially when you examine its building technique. The gallery for the women could be accessed only from the outside through two towers with spiral staircases that can still be seen for the most part in their original integrity.
The space of the atrium in front of the church, the xystum from which the Saxons acclaimed their king, still exists but the ancient porticos that flanked its sides are no longer there. The archway without the solium, now found in Aachen, still exists but it is not the original one. The recent search with the georadar has revealed that underneath the archway of San Claudio there is a small space.
Its dimensions and covering coincide with the description of the tomb given in Cronicon Novalicense. Even the building, described by Widukind, where in Otto I was crowned king of the Romans, considering the many particular details that were provided, matches without a doubt the church of San Claudio as it is today. Frederick I Barbarossa was elected king in Germany on March 4th, and five days later he was in Aquisgrana to be enthroned as king of the Romans on the tomb of Charlemagne, as stated in one of his letters to Pope Eugene III.
As for the tomb of Charlemagne, in Barbarossa, after defeating Milan, decided to declare Charlemagne a saint. He searched for his tomb, but found that the remains of the emperor were no longer there. Someone in the imperial party had to tell him that the remains had been hidden elsewhere, as told by Barbarossa himself, for fear that they could fall in the hands of the enemy of the empire at the time of the Second Council of the Lateran when the Lateran was still in the Chienti Valley.
As a matter of fact, that council was attended by Sugier, a very powerful cistercian at the court of Paris, who had arrived in the Chienti Valley with a fleet and a host of Templars and who left with the beautiful columns that had adorned the regal domus of Charlemagne, in order to bring them to Paris in the royal chapel of the new Saint Denis.
The enemy to whom Barbarossa is referring, could not have been anyone else but the French Cistercians who actually arrived in the Chienti Valley in Barbarossa relays that after having found Charlemagne by divine inspiration, he had him canonized by his antipope Pasquale III at Christmas of , and one year later, on December 29th, , as confirmed by Annales Aquenses , the remains were moved from Italy to Germany, perhaps in Cologne awaiting for the Aachen Chapel to be built.
This chapel was completed a few decades later, as demonstrated by the oldest traces found in the underground of the atrium that date back to the 13th century. From that time the remains of Charlemagne rest in Aachen, and the myth surrounding the emperor attracts great crowds of pilgrim tourists every year. The destiny of the authentic Palatine Chapel in the Chienti Valley was very different. Ten years after moving Saint Charlemagne described in the Annales Aquenses as translatio santissimi Caroli imperatori , Barbarossa decided to move the empire as well translatio imperii.
The defeat in the battle of Legnano against the Lombard League, that was supported by Pope Alexander III, resulted in the permanent loss of control of Italy for Frederick I Barbarossa and it encouraged him to execute the move of the empire translatio imperii from Italy to Germany.
The desire of revenge against the Pope pushed him to destroy Fermo and its cathedral His devastating fury was unleashed as well on the superb ancient Carolingian Chapel of Charlemagne. After all, its destruction was politically necessary in order to accomplish the translatio imperii. The vaults of the Aquisgrana Chapel in Italy were quickly and rudely rebuilt by local bricklayers and the solarium or covering terrace was replaced with a truss-like roof. The building was meant to replace the cathedral that was destroyed in Fermo until emperor Frederick II, grandson of Barbarossa, had it rebuilt with blocks of stone from Istria that were transported to the Fermo coastline by the imperial fleet.
The new bond that was established between the chapel that had by now become San Claudio parish and the bishops of Fermo has lasted up to our days since the title of pastor of San Claudio has been held continuously by the Archbishop-Prince of Fermo until , as evidence that this small countryside church had, in reality, an immense historical relevance and an extraordinary economic importance.
When Charlemagne died in it would seem logical for him to be buried at Saint Denis as well, where his grandfather and his parents were already resting.
Einhard reports that the new Chapel was chosen instead; in one of his letters from England, Alcuin had called it novam cappellam inter vineta, built by Charlemagne himself in Aquisgrana in the lower Chienti valley. It was certainly more beautiful than the older chapel on the hillside and in order to build it, around , Charlemagne invited qualified workers from the Middle East, at the time Syria, who were left jobless since the Umayyads had lost their power and the new Abbasside caliphs had moved their residence from Damascus to Baghdad.
The nova Cappella presented an absolutely new architectural feature, already tried in the frigidarium of Khirbat al-Mafjar near Jericho, where an Umayyad, caliph of Damascus,had built one of the famous residential palaces in the desert.
The frigidarium of this palace was structured with a square plan. Four pillars divided the square base into nine bays.
Germany: Düsseldorf, Colonhe Aachen :-)