Madhav Sadashiv Golwalkar, popular among his followers as Guruji, was the second sarsanghchalak, or chief, of the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh. During his tenure from July until his death on June 5, , he wrote and spoke extensively. In its attempt to rationalise Hindutva, it ascribes to Mahatma Gandhi and Jawaharlal Nehru statements they never made. He says there are three prerequisites for a people to be called a nation. It is these attributes that transform residents of a territory into the children of the territory — the motherland.
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He has been widely noted to be the most prominent ideologue of Hindutva. One of the early leaders for the RSS group. His family was prosperous and supported him in his studies, activities. Sadashivrao, a former clerk in the Posts and Telegraphs Department, became a teacher in the Central Provinces and ended his career as headmaster of a high school.
Golwalkar was the only surviving son of nine children. Since his father was frequently transferred around the country, he attended a number of schools. Golwalkar studied science and was apt and apolitical as a student. As an adolescent, he developed a deep interest in religion and spiritual meditation.
At the college, he was reportedly incensed at the "open advocacy" of Christianity and the disparagement of Hinduism ; much of his concern for the defence of Hinduism is traceable to this experience.
His students called him "Guruji" because of his beard, long hair and simple robe, a practice later continued in a reverential manner by his RSS followers. Golwalkar returned to Nagpur , and obtained a law degree by Hedgewar , founded an RSS shakha in Varanasi. After returning to Nagpur, Hedgewar exerted greater influence on Golwalkar. According to RSS sources, Hedgewar encouraged him to pursue a law degree because it would give him the reputation required of an RSS leader.
In , Hedgewar made him secretary karyavah of the main Nagpur branch. After he began practising law, Hedgewar tasked him with the management of the Akola Officers' Training Camp.
He became a disciple of Swami Akhandananda , who was a disciple of Ramakrishna and brother monk of Swami Vivekananda. Golwalkar's abilities managing complex details of the large camp, public speaking, reading and writing were appreciated. In , he was asked to translate G. The resulting book, We, or Our Nationhood Defined , was published in Golwalkar's name and regarded as a systematic treatment of RSS ideology;  the fact that it was an abridged translation did not come to light until In , at a Gurudakshina festival, Hedgewar announced that Golwalkar would be the next general secretary sarkaryavah , the second-most-important position in the RSS.
On 3 July, five state-level sanghchalak directors in Nagpur announced Hedgewar's decision. Golwalkar's choice was said to have stunned the RSS volunteers,  since Hedgewar passed over several senior activists. Golwalkar's background, training, and interests made him an unlikely successor, and Balasaheb Deoras said that several RSS leaders were sceptical about Golwalkar's ability as a sarsanghchalak. One reason advanced for his choice is that he was thought likely to maintain RSS independence, otherwise liable to be regarded as a youth front of the Hindu Mahasabha.
RSS supreme leader for more than 30 years, Golwalkar made it one of strongest religious-political organisations in India; its membership expanded from , to over one million, and it branched out into the political, social, religious, educational and labour fields through 50 front organisations.
One of Golwalkar's major innovations was an anti-communist, anti-socialist ideology, with the slogan "Not socialism but Hinduism. Goyal , the RSS' anti-Marxist tinge made it popular with the wealthy sections of society who generously supported it.
A shakha was founded in Srinagar in , and Golwalkar visited the city in Although it is believed that the maharaja agreed to the proposal, the accession was not signed until 26 October after the invasion by Pakistan.
Golwalkar's religiosity and apparent disinterest in politics convinced some RSS members that the organisation was no longer relevant to the nationalist struggle. It remained aloof from the freedom movement, and connections with the Hindu Mahasabha were severed. Limaye, resigned. Several swayamsevaks defected and formed the Hindu Rashtra Dal in , with an agenda of a paramilitary struggle against British rule; Nathuram Godse Gandhi's assassin was a leader of that group.
However, Golwalkar moved quickly to consolidate his position. He created a network of prant pracharaks provincial organisers , who would report to him rather than to the sanghchalaks. Golwalkar recruited local Congress leaders to preside over RSS functions, demonstrating the organisation's independence from the Hindu Mahasabha.
Many new members were religious, small-scale entrepreneurs interested in consolidating their caste positions with the RSS' Hindu symbols. Organisation policy during the war years was influenced by potential threats to Hinduism, with the RSS expected to be prepared to defend Hindu interests in the event of a Japanese invasion. It also expected a renewed Hindu-Muslim struggle after the war. Golwalkar did not want to give the British government an excuse to ban the RSS.
He complied with all governmental instructions, disbanding the RSS military department and avoiding the Quit India movement. The British acknowledged that the organisation "scrupulously kept itself within the law, and refrained from taking part in the disturbances that broke out in August, ".
In addition to pragmatism, Golwalkar appeared ideologically opposed to an anti-British struggle; the RSS pledged to defend India's freedom by defending religion and culture, and there was "no mention of the departure of the British". When Mahatma Gandhi was assassinated in January by Nathuram Godse , there was widespread apprehension despite Golwalkar's condemnation of the murderers that the RSS was involved.
However, Nathuram Godse's brother Gopal Godse —also accused in the assassination plot—said that Nathuram never left the RSS and his statement was designed to protect the RSS and Golwalkar who were "in deep trouble" after the assassination. The mass arrests, violence against members and the ban by an independent Indian government of what was understood as a patriotic organisation was a shock to the RSS membership.
Patel then demanded, as a precondition, that the RSS adopt a written constitution. Golwalkar responded by beginning a satyagraha on 9 December , and he and 60, RSS volunteers were arrested. The ban was lifted on 11 July Golwalkar is known to have propagated Dharmic teachings. This is why we say that in this nation of Bharat, living principles of the Hindu society are the living systems of this nation. Some of Golwalkar's ideas have differed with those from the RSS. For example, in his book This is We or Our Nationhood Defined published in , he compares the creation of a Hindu culture propagating the concept of acceptance of a shared Hindu heritage.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Princeton University Press. The Hindu. Retrieved 20 June Golwalkar, the RSS, and India. Sharma, Jyotirmaya Sundaram 9 January News Today. Archived from the original on 16 October Retrieved 10 October Penguin Books India. Viveka Press. Goyal, RSS , p. Goyal, RSS , pp. He added that he had translated Babarao Savarkar's book into Hindi and handed it over to a certain man. He said that it was most befitting on his part to acknowledge publicly the debt of gratitude.
Kashmir Times. Retrieved 2 May Orient Blackswan. Golwalkar Shri Guruji Samagra Darshan, Volume 4. Bharatiya Vichar Sadhana. Media House. SAGE Publications. University of Pennsylvania Press. Retrieved 25 June Retrieved 14 October The Caravan. Retrieved 28 July Retrieved 13 August Andersen, Walter 11 March Economic and Political Weekly. Andersen, Walter 18 March Andersen, Walter K.
Parts of Golwalkar's 'Bunch of Thought' not valid anymore: RSS chief Mohan Bhagwat
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Golwalkar's 'Bunch of Thoughts' Not Eternal, Says Bhagwat in RSS Outreach to Muslims
This story is from September 19, Sangh is not a dogmatic organization. Time changes and, accordingly, our thoughts transform. Reservation should stay till those communities who get the benefits of reservation themselves decide they no longer need it. Reservation is meant to correct the inequalities that crept into our society over the last few centuries. It will take time to correct the situation and we must patiently wait for the right time. Laws to secure people against victimization should be made and implemented properly.