Mostly know for his play Miss Margaridas Way, presented on Broadway starring Estelle Parsons and produced in more than 30 countries, Brazilian author Roberto Athayde writes both in English and Portuguese. Jonathans Friend is a novel inspired by the authors own experience as a foreign student in the US. The narrator, Armando, is a composition major at the the Music School of the University of Michigan in the spring of He is in the process of giving up music for writing. He finds out that a certain young composer is supposed to be in love with Jonathan, the best violinist in the music school, and that his passion is not reciprocated.
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Skar A great deal of contemporary drama fmm Brazil in,sc. While the two plays in this study, Roberto Athayde'sApareceu Q Margarida and Plinio Marcos's Dois perdidos numa noile suja , do offer discourses of resistance to many forms of oppression, a reading of their re-presentation of gender highlights a problematic relationship between tbe lranfigression of the heterosexual patriarchal order and the en-gendering of violence.
While tbese plays can be considered fiocially liberating if read from an economic or political perspective, there has been an almost complete absenee of a critical diseussion of them in terms of gender politic::s, wbose traditional order they re-produce without quesrion.
For our discussion of the relationship between gender and violenee in these texts, it will be necessary to re-define "gender" as a social construct instead of assuming that it is biologieally determined. Further, gender is instituted through the stylization of the body and, hence, must be understood as the mundane way in which bodily gestures, movements, and enactments of various kinds constitute the illusion of an abiding gendered self. In this study, my use of the term "gender" will rder to the above deftnition.
This leads to another necessary clarification. It is not my intention to affirm antiquated binary differences between masculine men and feminine women. Margarida, a primary school teacher, lectures her students in an almost uninterrupted monologue.
This oppresshe verbal violence has been studied in detail by such critics as Severino Albuquerque. The threatening atmosphere apparent throughout the play creates an ironic tone in relation to the warm maternal envrronmed[ that D.
Margarida stales she wants for her classroom: Para D. Margarida a melhor aula eaquela em que hli uma atmosfera de compreensao, de estima, de arnor enrre os alunos e a professora. Aquela mesma atmosfera de carinho e solidaricdade que cada um de voces enoontra em casa no seio da sua familia. E uma dmiva da natureza This is achieved through both verbal and physical abuse.
Ficou estern" Not only does this reference eonfirm the teacher's lack of maternal warmth or even human kindness, but the physical damage incurred, his sterility, focuses on the young man's sexual reproductive capabilities. Margarida even refers to a denial of her own reproduction of heterosexual social expectations. She describes her own school day experience with another female also named Margarida:.
Skar A menina Margarida ficava attas de D. Ela ficavd bern perto de D. A menina Margarit. A menina MargaridagOJ'tava de D. Voces compreendcm bem? A menina Margarida fazia carinho em D. Margarida refers repeatedly to herself as an object in the third person, and to her own body as a sign of woman to be used as part of sex education: "Nao pensem que eu you DIe abrir toda na frente de voces. Her references 10 her nudity as a sign of her sex appear in repeated negalions to reveal her body. However, tradi!
This entire process is nonverbal, occurring after D. Margarida has left. The discovery of the revolver at the end of the play along with Y. As Severino Albuquerque has mentioned, the threatening and repressive atmosphere in Dona Margarida's classroom: assumes universal proportions, so thal her name appears in conjunction with the national anthem pp.
Jtent Acts The behavior of this female teacher is comparable to tlie violence of the military regime. Understood in terms of the play's performance, D. Margarida transgresses society's expectations of a woman as maternal and conciliatory.
Instead, she "acts" as a tyrant. The performative elements of gender construction and the relationship of violence to transgre! In this text, t'mj men, Tonho and Paco, rent a room together with their meager earning:s. Paco, on the other hand, continually torments Tonho with insults and bad harmonica musie and refuses to accept Tonho's offer of solidarity.
From the city, with no family and liltle education, Paco has learned to mistrust any kindness from anyone. Apart from their individual differences of character, Paeo has something of value that Tonho does not, new shoes, and the play eenters on the two men's attempt to get the objects they most desire in order to better their economie situation.
Many critics have commented on the violence in this play in economic terms Albuquerque, Clark and G. Part of the aggressiveness that Paco directs against his roommate is a constant questioning of his masculinity. When Paco tells Tonho that the "negrao" at the market is angry because Tonho has taken some of his.
Paco's response to Tonho's peaceful proposition is to question his masculinity: "Voce mid e macho? After Tanbo resolves his dispute with the "newao" by paying him off, Paco repeatedly calls him "Boneca do Negriio. However, even after they obtain enough stolen goods to begin a more positive life, Paco cannot admit any kindness and again refuses to share with Tanho.
In planning the assault, Paco suggests that they should give "special" attention to the 'HOman, but Tonho refuses to harm her. What foll0w5 is a questioning of Tonho's heterosexuality when Paco declares: "Dew de onda.
E Boneca mesmo. Agora tive a prova. Nao querer rnulher e o fim da picada. Tonho and Paco argue until they both accuse each other of never having been with a woman, which would be sufficient "proof' for them that they are "machos.
Later, Paco begins to plan further assaults that are more scxual than material in their objective::;: Daqui pra frente, mio vamos assahar s6 por dinheiro. Eu quero a mulher tambem Eu vou ter uma faca, um rev61ver e meu alicate. Limpo a cara, dai mando ele ficar nu na frente da mulher. Oaf, digo pra ele: QUe prefere, miseravel?
Urn tiro, uma facada au um beliscao? Oaf eu pego a alicate e aperto 0 saco do bruto ate ele se arrear. Paco Maluco, a Perigoso, fala macio pra mulher: Agora n65, belezinha His abuse of the woman and of the man in front of her, acted oul for her, reaches a sadistic extreme. The added use of v.
Instead of using his own sexual "tool; Paco must rely on other tools to symbolize his masculinity and construct what for him. The use of gestures and objects at the end of the play becomes even more important as the violence between the two men escalates. The actual "performance" of tbe murder is quite significant. After realizing the robbery has not provided him with new shoes, the symbol of his ability to walk away from his situation and from his unbearable roommate, Tonho is forced to listen to Paco's constant torment.
After crying and begging for: Paco to slop, Tonbo calmly takes out the revolver and loads it while Paco repeatedly asks him if he is going to kill himself.
When he realizes that he, himself, is the target of Tonho's anger Paco attempts to make amends with his roommate, but it is too late. Although this play has a socio-economie message thai Plinio Marcos has himself admitted, the violence in lhis text is directly related 10 the "performances" of the two men in order to establish and defend their maseulinity.
Anne Cruz, in a study of Golden Age theater, comments on the critical dialectic surrounding male bonding and homosocial relationships and concludes that" In this play, Paco and Tonho's gender is not biologically determined but socially conslrueted as they attempt to prove to each other and to other men that they are maseuline, which they equate wjth a public demonstration of their heterosexuality.
It is possible to conclude that gender is as much a part of the violent competition betv. The social criticism can then be confirmed as more than an economic problem. T escape their marginal position, they are also unable to perform their gender as society would dictate.
There is another element in these plays that further problematizes gender. In each text, violence, whether on an interpersonal or national level, is. In tbe case of D. Margarida, she feels tbe need to control her class so that they will obey her. The social implications of her performance are tremendoll". Her transgression of traditional expectations of "femininity" serves as an allegory for the oppression of a totalitarian goo. Violence is bolh a part of her transgression of imposed gender performance and an indirect result of that transgression, serving to encourage violence against the military regime.
The second play, also wrillen during the violent years of the dictatorship, problemalizes "gender" as performance in a differenl way.
For Paco, violence is a means for asserting his masculinity. His obsession with proving his heterosexuality can be read as an overcompensation for his lack of socio-economic power or even as a suggestion of his impotence or inability, according 10 societal expeetations in Brazil, to accept his 0'Ntl homosexual desire. What is most apparent is that in both lexts, transgressions of the helerosexual order are performed on the Brazilian stage not as liberalions fcom social oppression but as twisted sub-rersions of the socio-cuhural order.
While socio-political change is presenled as necessary and beneficial to Brazilian society, the heterosexual order and a violent reaction 10 any transgression of it go unque!
Apareceu a Margan-da. Rio de laneiro: Brasilia, Butler, ludith. Chapel Hill: Hispan6ftla, Cruz, Anne. Dois peniido5 numa nolle suja: pet;a em dols atos. Jonathan T. It focuses on developmental and topical approaches to important facets of women. Gender Theory Overview In this lecture we will focus on the difference between sex and gender, and review the emergence of the study of gender as a discipline.
Objectives By the end of this topic you. Bisexuality in the Blues: the legacy of womens' sexual and musical liberation Marie Incontrera The macro-antiphonal concept, 1 which is intrinsically important to Black American music, asserts that the. The Essential Elements of Writing a Romance Novel by Leigh Michaels Even if you re a seat-of-the-pants, explore-as-you-go sort of writer, there are a few things you need to know about your story before.
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