AMOUR BILINGUE KHATIBI PDF

Affected in his late twenties by the rebellious spirit of s counterculture , he challenged in his writings the social and political norms upon which the countries of the Maghreb region were constructed. Khatibi was born in February 11, , in the Atlantic port city of El Jadida. By the age of 12, he began to write poems, in Arabic and French, which he sent to the radio and newspapers. He worked as a director of the Institut de sociologie Institute of Sociology in Rabat from until the Institute's closure in In his later years, Abdelkebir Khatibi had been suffering from a chronic cardiac condition which led to his death in the Moroccan capital, Rabat , five weeks after his 71st birthday. During the final stages of his illness, a measure of the high regard in which he was held was seen in the personal concern of King Mohammed VI who directed his transfer to Morocco's premier medical facility, Sheikh Zayed Hospital.

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To browse Academia. Skip to main content. By using our site, you agree to our collection of information through the use of cookies. To learn more, view our Privacy Policy. Log In Sign Up. Rethinking the Bilingual Self, through Khatibi's "Amour bilingue". Abdelaziz Bouzain. Acknowledgments II. Table of Contents III. Abstract IV. Introduction …………………………………………………………………………………………………….. Bilingualism, a By-product of Colonialism …………………………………………………….. Linguistic Hybridity and its Representation …………………………………… 8 — 10 1.

Bi-lingualism, an Attempt at Self-refashioning ……………………………… 11 — 13 II. Fighting for a post-colonial space ………………………………………………………………. Writing the Bi-lingual Self across Languages ………………………………..

Experimenting Bi-lingualism ………………………………………………………………………… 20 -- 22 1. Bi-lingualism, Moments of Clash …………………………………………………… 23 — 26 1. Thinking and Writing Bi-lingualism ………………………………………………… 27 — 29 II.

Un-translating the Bilingual Self ………………………………………………………………….. Inhabiting Untranslatable Bi-lingualism …………………………………………. Blurring the Borders ……………………………………………………………………… 36 -- 38 V. Conclusion ……………………………………………………………………………………………………. Works Cited ………………………………………………………………………………………………….. This paper provides critical reception of how Khatibi perceives of bilingualism and how Khatibi gives it a modern look when put in the post-colonial context. Furthermore, the paper explores the modern views of bilingualism apropos of identity— including language and culture.

In addition, the paper is an exploration of bilingualism at two main levels: the self and the text. Studying critically the phenomenon of bilingualism is of a high importance in post-colonial theory as well as cultural studies.

What makes bilingualism critical is that it is a fact, experienced and seen in our society. Tackling this concept and its complex implications in the context either of post-colonial studies or cultural studies makes it more knotty, given its intersections with other important concepts such as identity, culture, language etc.

The paper actually is meant to provide a plus to post-colonial as well as cultural studies concerns; it is meant to rethink and revalue an indispensable fact, which is distinctive of Me and You. But, we need first to inquire briefly back into the history of linguistic and cultural confrontation with the colonizer, and decide on how it still affects the Maghrebi World.

The colonial practices of the French and British Empires have brought about in the colonized world new sets of values, traditions cultures, and strived by whatever means to institutionalize them, the thing they succeeded in. The Francophone and Arabo-Berber confrontation in Morocco brought with it a new way of looking at the Moroccan culture, and with it correspondingly complex results in the process of self-identification.

This new way is defined by the ambivalent mixture of cultures which many generations experienced and still undergo in the same home. Many hybrid persons have been, ever since the colonial presence in Morocco, born to hold different identities simultaneously. The self took new dimensions of identification based only on the restlessness of the painful experience of double- identity and of dual experience of thought.

This restlessness drove many; among them are authors, as we will see later, to look forward to a new place of the in-between, a place that blurs the border of identity and of culture. An escape from a world of uncertainty marked with pluralistic and ambivalent existence, but still neither to us nor to them. Writing and Difference. The University of Chicago Press: They have therefore made several attempts at questioning the truth, purity and origins of their culture, of their linguistic, social and political codes and of their identity.

In this paper, I would analytically and critically re-think the bilingual self. I would cast the light on arguments of linguistic hybridity as an after-math of the colonial experience and as the Moroccan novelist Abdelkebir Khatibi represents it in his novel.

I will methodologically deconstruct this bi- lingual self at the level of self as a lived experience and the text as a record of this experience. In addition, this paper is a critique of linguistic identity; that is, it investigates how Khatibi and all the Moroccans hold differing cultures. Furthermore, this paper is an elaboration on the third space as a refuge from the colonial experience of mixed culture and identity; it also discusses the pluralistic existence in narration; namely, text as a hostage for the bilingual writer.

Abdelkebir Khatibi introduced his ideas about bi-lingualism and bi-culturalism of the Maghrebi world, because he was at the heart of this experience. The question of language and identity faced him very early, and his choice to write in French despite the fact that he is a Moroccan posed for him many questions of identity and culture.

All his ideas of the cultural and linguistic hybridity shaped his deconstructive view about his self. I will try to use modern works so as to revive our outlook of identity and culture and give it new contemporary reading. I admit that this paper is not definitely an over-arching deal with the topic, as so many points will be excluded and others included.

It is unfortunately sad that this topic is constrained only to one part of the Maghreb and to only one specific colonial result in this world.

But, I am also happy, for it is a precious chance to read through the colonial experience and its results that fortunately I did not then witness. What I really expect from conducting this research is to enlighten myself about the enriching field of post-colonialism, to give new dimensions to how we look at our identities and cultures, to right up personal and impersonal views about ourselves and origins and finally to make a successful head-start to conduct more broad researches on the Maghreb and simultaneously to open a gate to post-graduate studies.

Bi-lingualism, a By-product of Colonialism Morocco has been throughout history an interface on which diverse lines of cultures meet. But, this fact has not mattered a lot until the arrival of colonialism. The drastic aftereffects — cultural and socio-political--that this painful experience triggered off were at the centre of post-colonial attention. The French colonial existence in Morocco has given rise to a complex scene concerning the linguistic identity; the everyday experience of lapsing between two linguistic codes has been a second-nature of the Moroccans.

This linguistic hybridity is doubtless regarded as the spin-off of the colonial existence in Morocco. As the cultural diffusion between the two differing and conflicting cultures has taken place, within the colonial era in Morocco, this very diffusion has spawned new postcolonial-angled views of the Moroccan cultural and linguistic identities, a space of plurality in which bi-lingualism and multilingualism lie2.

Correspondingly, claiming an identity does necessarily mean to subscribe oneself to a language which per se requires one to accept the rules of its culture. Verily, the colonial experience in Morocco has not stopped at the political or economic or even assumingly for the sake of argument the civilizing mission; the experience has exceeded that and brought about a whole multi-layered form of cultural and linguistic existence, or rather what is known as hybridity.

Contrariwise, by the confrontation of Arabophone and Francophone cultures, the notion of having a pure Mother Tongue has been impossible. The intrinsic clash of the two differing cultures has effaced the connotation of Mother Tongue as an inborn language and as legitimately an exclusive property of the self to which one subscribes and identifies with. In Morocco, for instance, the newly-born children acquire essentially two languages. Another instance of the hybridity3 of the Moroccans at the level of linguistic codes is that Moroccans do travel unconsciously from one language to another, or sometimes they make use of a mixture of both.

Writers, Moroccan by up-bringing but taught in French schools, have faced the question of bilingualism in their writings. Bilingualism has meant for them more than a mere question of a fact; their deep understanding of the term and its complex ramifications have brought with it a sense of mutation of thought, of double existence and of a burden in writing and articulating their original identity, belonging and culture.

For the Moroccan writer, writing in French and being hybrid denote what Walter Benjamin describes as: 3 Homi. Hybridization takes many forms: linguistic, cultural, political, racial etc.

Where thinking suddenly stops in a constellation saturated with tensions, it gives that constellation a shock. In this structure. Qtd in selected writings. When one writes crossing two languages, one feels a sense of non- belonging, of being an internationalist4 and of being a linguistic transvestite5. Linguistic Hybridity and its Representation The protracted existence of colonialism in the Maghrebi World has left drastic traces—on socio-political and linguistic levels-- which have been dappling the past and the present consciousness of the colonized.

Most of the Maghrebi inhabitants feel a sense of linguistic duality and thus a responsibility of thought. The textual fact of adapting the language of the colonizer to the culture of the colonized and vice versa foregrounds the subversive outlook that Francophone literature takes on, and it shows the view the Maghrebi writers propose to the language of the colonizer—writers subvert the French language through adapting it to their cultures.

However, the interdependent adaptation of French and Arabic in Francophone literature brings forth a space6 of cultural conflict, a space of hybrid existence of the writer and of his or her text. The hybridity of the post-colonial texts lies in the fact that writers clothe the French language with hidden sets of native cultural expressions, proverbs and idioms.

Writings of the Maghrebi writers in French language are symptoms of the process of decolonization, which is a claim to the Maghrebi identity and culture in the other-French culture. To bring them back, just by writing them, and while I felt constrained, finding the equivalence without distortion, but hastily translate them. This self forms a new literary space for its identity and belonging; it subverts so as to represent itself.

The bi-lingual self represents its self—identity, culture and language— by appropriating the French into their semantic and expressive forms of native traditions. This bilingualism actually posits problems of languages, French and Arabic, and how they are related to the collective identity. To have a language is to identify the self to a culture, and in the case of bilingualism one is faced with a double being, a hybrid existence, and a conflict of thought.

Bi-lingualism, an Attempt at Self Re-fashioning It is mandatory for the Bi-lingual writer to choose a language whereby he puts forth his ideas and thoughts. It is this, in the case of the Maghrebi writer, which matters a lot when it comes to self-identification and culture. Choosing to write in French makes them question their identity, for choosing French means selecting not only a linguistic code but a cultural structure which speaks for the self. Correspondingly, this fact of Bi-lingualism evinces the plurality of the Bi-lingual writer not only at the level of language or linguistic code but also at the level of identity question.

Who am I? Where do I live? Can I determine my identity and my home even if I am between two worlds? Identity in the Maghreb World is defined by hybridity or a collective identity7. The cross-breeding of Arab and French cultures in the Maghreb reinforces the fact of loss and alienation. And again, reading the Bi-lingual texts is not only a reading of fiction, but this reading is a form of packed texts in which the plurality of the writers is at play.

It informs us about and makes us realize a conflicting world of two different cultures. The Bi-lingual writer feels a sense of fragmentation brought about by living between two cultures, utilizing two languages.

We can say that the Bi-lingual undergoes Transformations.

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