SINHALA HODIYA PDF

Sinhala script is an abugida written from left to right. Sinhala letters are ordered into two sets. Sinhala script is a Brahmi derivate , and was imported from Northern India, around the 3rd century BCE, [3] but was influenced at various stages by South Indian scripts, manifestly influenced by the early Grantha script. By the 9th century CE, literature written in Sinhala script had emerged and the script began to be used in other contexts. In the Dutch were the first to print with Sinhala type on the island.

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Sinhala script is an abugida written from left to right. Sinhala letters are ordered into two sets. Sinhala script is a Brahmi derivate , and was imported from Northern India, around the 3rd century BCE, [3] but was influenced at various stages by South Indian scripts, manifestly influenced by the early Grantha script. By the 9th century CE, literature written in Sinhala script had emerged and the script began to be used in other contexts. In the Dutch were the first to print with Sinhala type on the island.

The resulting type followed the features of that of the native Sinhala script practiced on palm leaves. The Dutch created type was monolinear and geometric in fashion with no separation between words in early documents. During the second half of the 19th century, during the Colonial period , a new style of Sinhala letterforms emerged in opposition to the monolinear and geometric form being high contrast in appearance and having varied thicknesses.

This high contrast type gradually replaced the monolinear type as the preferred style which continues to be used in the present day.

The high contrast style is still preferred for text typesetting in printed newspapers, books and magazines in Sri Lanka. Today, the alphabet is used by over 16,, people to write Sinhala in very diverse contexts, such as newspapers , TV commercials , government announcements, graffiti , and schoolbooks.

Sinhala is the main language written in this script, but rare instances of Sri Lanka Malay are recorded. Most of the Sinhala letters are curlicues ; straight lines are almost completely absent from the alphabet, and it does not have joining characters. This is because Sinhala used to be written on dried palm leaves , which would split along the veins on writing straight lines. This was undesirable, and therefore, the round shapes were preferred.

Upper and lower cases do not exist in Sinhala. The definition of the two sets is thus a historic one. This is most notably necessary for the graphemes for the Middle Indic phonemes that the Sinhala language lost during its history, such as aspirates. This one-to-many mapping of phonemes onto graphemes is a frequent source of misspellings. This means that the actual pronunciation of a word is almost always clear from its orthographic form. Both are represented in the image on the right side.

The first one is the most common one, while the second one is used for letters ending at the top left corner. Every sequence of sounds of Sinhala of today can be represented by these graphemes. However, words which historically contain these two phonemes are still often written with the graphemes representing the retroflex sounds. Vowels come in two shapes: independent and diacritic. The independent shape is used when a vowel does not follow a consonant, e. The diacritic shape is used when a vowel follows a consonant.

Depending on the vowel, the diacritic can attach at several places. These are shaded in the table. In any case, it is needed for the representation of modern Sinhala. The prenasalized consonants resemble their plain counterparts. It adds letters for aspirates , retroflexes and sibilants , which are not phonemic in today's Sinhala, but which are necessary to represent non-native words, like loanwords from Sanskrit , Pali or English.

The use of the extra letters is mainly a question of prestige. The latter are almost exclusively found in loanwords from Sanskrit. This is not very problematic as the second one is extremely scarce. Certain combinations of graphemes trigger special ligatures.

Some of the more common are displayed in the following table. Note that although modern Sinhala sounds are not aspirated, aspiration is marked in the sound where it was historically present to highlight the differences in modern spelling. Touching letters were used in ancient scriptures but are not used in modern Sinhala. Vowels may be attached to any of the ligatures formed, attaching to the rightmost part of the glyph except for vowels that use the kombuva , where the kombuva is written before the ligature or cluster and the remainder of the vowel, if any, is attached to the rightmost part.

Another naming convention is to use al- before a letter with suppressed vowel, thus alkayanna. The first one indicates the sound, the second one the shape. Sinhala had special symbols to represent numerals, which were in use until the beginning of the 19th century. This system is now superseded by Hindu—Arabic numeral system. Sinhala Illakkam were used for writing numbers prior to the fall of Kandyan Kingdom in These digits did not have a zero instead the numbers had signs for 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90, , These digits and numbers can be seen primarily in Royal documents and artefacts.

Prior to the fall of Kandyan Kingdom all calculations were carried out using Lith digits. After the fall of the Kandyan Kingdom , Sinhala Lith Illakkam were primarily used for writing horoscopes. However, there is evidence that they were used for other purposes such as writing page numbers etc.

The tradition of writing degrees and minutes of zodiac signs in horoscopes continued into the 20th century using different versions of Lith Digits. The kunddaliya was formerly used as a full stop. Layman's transliterations in Sri Lanka normally follow neither of these.

Vowels are transliterated according to English spelling equivalences, which can yield a variety of spellings for a number of phonemes. Many of the oldest manuscripts in the Pali language are written in the Sinhala script. The following table lays out the Sinhala representations of Pali consonants with their standard academic Romanizations:.

Consonant sequences may be combined in ligatures in a manner identical to that described above for Sinhala. As an example, below is the first verse from the Dhammapada in Pali in Sinhala script, followed by Romanization:. Another feature that distinguishes Sinhala from its sister Indo-Aryan languages is the presence of a set of five nasal sounds known as half-nasal or prenasalized stops.

However, all versions of Windows Vista and Windows 10 come with Sinhala support by default, and do not require external fonts to be installed to read Sinhala script. Nirmala UI is the default Sinhala font in windows The newest version of Windows 10 has added support for Sinhala Archaic Numbers that were not supported by default in the previous version. For Linux , the IBus , and SCIM input methods allow the use Sinhala script in applications with support for a number of key maps and techniques such as traditional, phonetic and assisted techniques.

Sinhala script was added to the Unicode Standard in September with the release of version 3. Another block, Sinhala Archaic Numbers , was added to Unicode in version 7. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Unicode range. Northern Brahmic. Southern Brahmic.

Click on [show] on the right if you only see boxes below. Click on [show] on the right if you see only boxes below. This section needs expansion.

You can help by adding to it. February Main article: Sinhala numerals. Main article: Sinhala Unicode block. History of the Evolution of the Sinhala Alphabet. Colombo Apothecaries' Company, Limited. Cambridge University Press. Dalton Maag. Retrieved 26 August Sunday Observer. Archived from the original on 7 February Retrieved 21 September Unicode Consortium.

Sinhala Online. Retrieved 23 September Sinhala language. Sri Lanka Sinhalese people. Central Southern Maldivian Rodiya dialect Vedda language. Literature Literary Sinhala Sinhala name Pali. Dutch English Portuguese Sanskrit Tamil.

Macanese Patois. Script Braille Numerals Archaic numbers Romanization transliteration. Software Keyboard Unicode block Input methods. Hela Havula Sinhala Only Act. Types of writing systems. History of writing Grapheme. Ideograms and pictograms.

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Sinhala script

The above alphabet is the standard alphabet for Sinhalese. There are 18 vowels and 42 consonants in this modern alphabet. There are only 10 vowels and 20 consonants in this alphabet. It has been modifying and evolving to the modern Sinhalese for centuries.

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