Once a center for silver mining, Zacatecas has earned a reputation as an agricultural center noted for its grains and sugar cane. Boasting a major university, bustling agriculture and robust commerce, Zacatecas is self-confident and self-contained. Due to its fine array of art, cultural and historical museums along with beautiful parks and marvelous architecture, Zacatecas is a favorite destination for Mexican families and tourists. The La Quemada settlement was constructed within a hilltop fortress, perhaps as protection against Chichimec invasion. Unlike the Zacatecos, the Caxcanes were a semi-nomadic group who had frequent encounters with other tribes.
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They are often considered part of the Chichimeca , a generic term used by the Spaniards and Aztecs for all the nomadic and semi-nomadic Native Americans living in the deserts of northern Mexico.
However, the Caxcanes seem to have been sedentary, depending upon agriculture for their livelihood and living in permanent towns and settlements. They were, perhaps, the most northerly of the agricultural, town-and-city dwelling peoples of interior Mexico.
Other Native Americans participating in the revolt were the Zacatecos from the state of the same name. But the Spaniards encountered increased resistance as they moved further from the complex hierarchical societies of Central Mexico and attempted to force Indians into servitude through the encomienda system.
The spark that set off the war was apparently the arrest of 18 rebellious Indian leaders and the hanging of nine of them in mid Later in the same year the Indians rose up to kill, roast, and eat the encomendero Juan de Arze. The Caxcanes killed a delegation of one priest and ten Spanish soldiers. The command structure of the Caxcanes is unknown but the most prominent leader from among them who emerged was Tenamaztle Francisco Tenamaztle of Nochistlan , Zacatecas.
The Viceroy Antonio de Mendoza called upon the experienced conquistador Pedro de Alvarado to assist in putting down the revolt. Alvarado declined to await reinforcements and attacked Mixton in June with four hundred Spaniards and an unknown number of Indian allies. The first attack of the Spanish was repulsed with ten Spaniards and many Indian allies killed.
Subsequent attacks by Alvarado were also unsuccessful and on June 24 Alvarado was injured when a horse fell on him. He died on July 4.
Emboldened, the Indians attacked the city of Guadalajara in September but were repulsed. The Spanish authorities were now thoroughly alarmed and feared that the revolt would spread. They assembled a force of Spaniards and 30 to 60 thousand Aztec, Tlaxcalan and other Indians and under Viceroy Antonio de Mendoza invaded the land of the Caxcanes.
On November 9, , he captured the city of Nochistlan and Tenamaztle, but the Indian leader later escaped. The reports of the excessive violence against civilian Indians caused the Council of the Indies to undertake a secret investigation into the conduct of the viceroy. It also opened up Spanish access to the deserts of the north in which Spanish explorers would search for and find rich silver deposits. After their defeat the Caxcanes were absorbed into Spanish society and lost their identity as a distinct people.
They would later serve as auxiliaries to Spanish soldiers in their continued advance northward. The Spanish were forced to change their policy from one of forcibly subjugating the Indians to accommodation and gradual absorption, a process taking centuries.
The Caxcan possibly survive into the 21st century, at least in folk festivals, as the Tastuane Indians. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Indian wars and conflicts in New Spain. Indigenous peoples of the Americas portal Latin America portal Mexico portal. Cambridge: Cambridge U Press, , p. Matias de la Mota. Historia de la Conquista de la Provincia de la Nueva-Galicia.
Mexico Imprenta del Gobierno, , p. The phrase in the reference is "le mataron, Y asado se le comieron. Norman: U of OK Press, p.
Nochistlan de Mejia [ permanent dead link ] ,. Russell C. Tucson: U of AZ Press, Retrieved August Altman, Ida. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press The colonization of North America, — Kessinger Publishing reprint ed.
New York: Macmillan Co. Giudicelli, Christophe; Pierre Ragon Archived from the original on Retrieved Tacabuya, Mexico: original imprint by E. Breve historia de Aguascalientes. Schmal, John P. History of Mexico. Houston Institute for Culture. Hidden categories: All articles with dead external links Articles with dead external links from September Articles with permanently dead external links Articles with dead external links from April Articles with dead external links from February CS1 French-language sources fr CS1 Spanish-language sources es.
All rights reserved. In towns across central Mexico, the tastuan ritual combines past and present, pagan and Catholic. With cow-hair crests bristling from dark wooden masks and bright capes swirling over tightly buckled boots, men across central Mexico converge on town squares in the last days of July to complete the ritual for which they've spent all year preparing: the feast of Santo Santiago. The town's Santo Santiago character, decked in a fine sombrero and red velvet cape, leads tastuanes back to the village after church in Juchipila, Zacatecas. Tastuanes' veneration of Santo Santiago has its roots in 9th-century Spain, when the apostle's mythical support of Christian Spaniards' war to expel the Muslim Moors was memorialized in dance.
The Caxcan were a partly nomadic indigenous people of Mexico. During the rebellion, they were described as "the heart and the center of the Indian Rebellion". After the rebellion, they were a constant target of the Zacatecos and Guachichiles due to their ceasefire agreement with the Spaniards. Their principal religious and population centers were at Teul , Tlaltenango , Juchipila , and Teocaltiche. Over time, the Caxcans lost their culture due to warfare, disease, and marriage to non-Caxcans.