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This article is about the demographics of the Ottoman Empire , including population density , ethnicity , education level, religious affiliations and other aspects of the population. Lucy Mary Jane Garnett stated in the book Turkish Life in Town and Country , published in , that "No country in the world, perhaps, contains a population so heterogeneous as that of Turkey. Demographic data for most of the history of the Ottoman Empire is not quite precise.
For most of the five centuries of its existence, the empire did not have easily computable valid data except figures for the number of employed citizens.
Until the first official census — , data was derived from extending the taxation values to the total population. Because of the use of taxation data to infer population size, detailed data for numerous Ottoman urban centers - towns with more than 5, inhabitants - is accurate.
This data was collaborated with data on wages and prices. Another source was used for the numbers of landlords of households in the Ottoman Empire- every household was assumed to have 5 residents. Entire villages remained uncounted.
Taxable population was enumerated, i. For some settlements the rest of the male population was the majority. The first official census — took 10 years to finish. In the results were compiled and presented. This census is the first modern, general and standardized census accomplished not for taxation nor for military purposes, but to acquire demographic data.
The population was divided into ethno-religious and gender characteristics. In the Council of States took charge of drawing population tables, increasing the precision of population records. They introduced new measures of recording population counts in This led to the establishment of a General Population Administration, attached to the Ministry of Interior in Somehow, these changes politicized the population counts.
After the Ottoman Empire established a statistics authority Istatistik-i Umumi Idaresi under which results of another official census was published in Istatistik-i Umumi Idaresi conducted a new census survey for which field work lasted two years — Results of regional studies on this data were published later, which were sorted by their publication date.
Included in the publication and subsequent ones was the Ottoman Empire's population as of , , and The substantial archival documentation on the census has been used in many modern studies and international publications. After the Ottoman Empire began to disband and a chain of violent wars such as the Italo-Turkish War , Balkan Wars and World War I drastically changed the region, its borders, and its demographics.
Before the establishment of the Danube Vilayet , some Muslim immigrants from Crimea and Caucasus had been settled in this region from to Another , male and female Circassian and Crimean Tatar refugees settled in were to a degree excluded from the census count.
Male population of the taxable population of the Danube Vilayet :. Percentage of communities in towns from the male population in according to Ottoman teskere: . Census in Eastern Rumelia of . Census of Eastern Rumelia in . The ethnic composition of the population of Eastern Rumelia , according to the provincial census taken in , was the following: .
Population of Eastern Rumelia according to the census: . Population of the Salonika vilayet: . The Muslim population in Silistra subprovince was most numerous The entire population of the province, reached ca.
The total population of the two mainly Turkish sanjaks of the Danube Vilayet in , according to the French consul Aubaret: . Total population of the Adrianople Vilayet in according to the Turkish author Kemal Karpat : . Moore:  . Male population of İslimiye sanjak of Adrianople Vilayet in according to Ottoman almanacs: .
Moore: . Population of Istanbul in according to Stanford Shaw Male:female : . Male population of some sanjaks in according to Earl Granville : . Male population of some sanjaks in according to Bulgarian Kusev and Gruev: . Total population of some sanjaks in according to Italian Hondros: . Total population according to Abdolonyme Ubicini who based the statistics on the Ottoman census of .
In the Ioannina Vilayet the Orthodox Christians were dominant, a majority of whom were ethnically Albanian according to Ottoman officials and were also three fourths of the Muslims. Total population of the European part in according to David Urquhart :  . Total population of the European part in the s according to Auguste Viquesnel: .
Total population of the European part in according to Ernst Georg Ravenstein who relied on several sources including Ottoman statistics:  . Total population of some sanjaks in according to Russian diplomat Teplov:  . Population of the sanjaks according to a Greek author: .
Male Population of the parts of the Danube, Adrianople and Salonika vilayets corresponding to the modern Republic of Bulgaria in according to Totev: .
Toynbee which compiled statements from eyewitnesses from other countries including Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Sweden, and Switzerland, who similarly attested to Armenians in the Ottoman Empire during The publication presents Arnold J.
Toynbee's analysis on Armenian population in the Ottoman Empire. A summary table of his analysis included in the page In the "vilayet of Van", there were two portions, portions in modern use corresponds to county. As explained by Arnold J. Toynbee in the footprint at page , he developed his analysis by excluding certain portions of the province where he said "Armenians were a minor".
Arnold Toynbee in finding the ratio of Armenians in vilayet of Van; he removed the values originating from portions of Van listed in the foot print where Armenians were in minority. The presented table in page shows the re-calculated values by Arnold J. Toynbee of these selected provinces using values of the parts counties, sanjacks which Armenians were not in minority. The presented map shows the re-calculated values of the stated provinces using values where Armenians are not in minority.
Ethnic values of the Six vilayets according to presented data. Articles discussing the demographics of the Ottoman Empire :. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Historical population Year Pop. Muslim population in the Ottoman vilayets Muslim population in the Ottoman sanjaks.
Turkish Life in Town and Country. Putnam's Sons , Ankara: T. Ottoman population, demographic and social characteristics. Madison, Wis: University of Wisconsin Pres. Karpat, p. Archived from the original on Retrieved Retrieved 2 January Council of Europe. Population Size and Growth. Notes of a visit to the district of Philippopolis in London, Archived from the original PDF on Ottoman Empire.
Rumeli Eyalet. Ada rural.
Ottoman Population, 1830-1914: Demographic and Social Characteristics
Calvin Goldscheider, kemal h. Ottoman Population, — Demographic and Social Characteristics. Turkish and Ottoman Studies. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press. Most users should sign in with their email address. If you originally registered with a username please use that to sign in.
Demographics of the Ottoman Empire
Deniz Balgamis and Kemal H. Karpat Turkish immigrants in America. This is the first attempt to present a comprehensive picture of immigration to the United States from the Ottoman Empire and the Republic of Turkey, consisting of historical overviews, case studies of recent Turkish immigrants' adaptation to contemporary American life and their attitudes towards Islam, and essays on sources. The contributors include Rifat N. For the first time, this rich and nuanced set of papers provides readers with an informed, fascinating and comprehensive investigation of this diverse migration stream, which began around and continues to the present. In publishing this edited book, Karpat and Balgamis have performed a valuable service for scholars and students of international migration. This scholarly volume is a welcome and significant contribution to historical immigration studies and will no doubt be an indispensable resource for anyone interested in the history of immigration and settlement in the United States from this increasingly important part of the world.
ISBN 13: 9780299091606
National Library of Australia. Search the catalogue for collection items held by the National Library of Australia. Read more Karpat, Kemal H.