FREEMARTINISM IN CATTLE PDF

A total of blood samples from female calves born co-twin to male calves were examined cytogenetically for freemartinism between and Six hundred calves We concluded that some obvious freemartins were eliminated prior to submission of samples for confirmatory cytogenetic diagnosis, and that only a small percentage of the estimated 93, female calves born co-twin to male calves annually are so examined. Therefore, probably a large number of female co-twins that are not truly freemartins are sold to slaughter every year.

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A total of blood samples from female calves born co-twin to male calves were examined cytogenetically for freemartinism between and Six hundred calves We concluded that some obvious freemartins were eliminated prior to submission of samples for confirmatory cytogenetic diagnosis, and that only a small percentage of the estimated 93, female calves born co-twin to male calves annually are so examined. Therefore, probably a large number of female co-twins that are not truly freemartins are sold to slaughter every year.

We propose that obvious freemartins be identified by use of the vaginal-length test and that the remaining clinically questionable calves be differentiated cytogenetically. This combination of procedures could prevent unnecessary economic losses and preserve important genetic material. Three animals with chromosomal anomalies were found during examination of samples for freemartinism. Cytogenetic evaluation for freemartinism thus offers the added value of simultaneous surveillance for cytogenetic aberrations in male and female cells of a sample.

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Cite Favorites. Abstract A total of blood samples from female calves born co-twin to male calves were examined cytogenetically for freemartinism between and Similar articles Sample size for detection of Y-chromosomes in lymphocytes of possible freemartins. Dunn HO, et al. Cornell Vet. PMID: The diagnosis of freemartinism in cattle using sex-specific DNA sequences. Ennis S, et al. Res Vet Sci.

Hinrichs K, et al. J Am Vet Med Assoc. The freemartin syndrome: an update. Padula AM. Anim Reprod Sci. Epub Dec PMID: Review. The fertility of bulls born twin to freemartins: a review. Long SE. Vet Rec. Show more similar articles See all similar articles. Animals Basel. Freemartinism in replacement ewe-lambs of the Ripollesa sheep breed. J Vet Sci. Qiu Q, et al. Embryo sexing and sex chromosomal chimerism analysis by loop-mediated isothermal amplification in cattle and water buffaloes.

Hirayama H, et al. J Reprod Dev. Batista M, et al. Can Vet J. Publication types Research Support, Non-U. Gov't Actions. MeSH terms Animals Actions. Animals, Newborn Actions. Cattle Actions. Female Actions. Male Actions. Twins Actions. Copy Download.

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Diagnosis of Freemartinism in Cattle: The Need for Clinical and Cytogenic Evaluation

A freemartin or free-martin sometimes martin heifer is an infertile female mammal with masculinized behavior and non-functioning ovaries. The animal originates as a female XX , but acquires the male XY component in utero by exchange of some cellular material from a male twin, via vascular connections between placentas: an example of microchimerism. Freemartins are known to have been described by the Roman writer Varro , who called them "taura". The 18th-century physician John Hunter discovered that a freemartin always has a male twin. It was hypothesized early in the 20th century that masculinizing factors travel from the male twin to the female twin through the vascular connections of the placenta because of the vascular fusion, and thereby affect the internal anatomy of the female.

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