BIOCHIPS SEMINAR REPORT PDF

That would be a major loss of privacy. But there is a flip side to this! The human body is the next big target of chipmakers. Large amount of money and research has already gone into this area of technology. Anyway, such implants have already experimented with. A few US companies are selling both chips and their detectors.

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That would be a major loss of privacy. But there is a flip side to this! The human body is the next big target of chipmakers. Large amount of money and research has already gone into this area of technology.

Anyway, such implants have already experimented with. A few US companies are selling both chips and their detectors. The chips are of size of an uncooked grain of rice, small enough to be injected under the skin using a syringe needle. They respond to a signal from the detector, held just a few feet away, by transmitting an identification number. This number is then compared with the database listings of register pets. Daniel Man, a plastic surgeon in private practice in Florida, holds the patent on a more powerful device: a chip that would enable lost humans to be tracked by satellite.

A biochip is a collection of miniaturized test sites micro arrays arranged on a solid substrate that permits many tests to be performed at the same time in order to get higher throughput and speed.

Like a computer chip that can perform millions of mathematical operation in one second, a biochip can perform thousands of biological operations, such as decoding genes, in a few seconds. A specifically designed microscope can determine where the sample hybridized with DNA strands in the biochip. Biochips helped to dramatically increase the speed of the identification of the estimated 80, genes in human DNA, in the world wide research collaboration known as the Human Genome Project.

In addition to genetic applications, the biochip is being used in toxicological, protein, and biochemical research. Biochips can also be used to rapidly detect chemical agents used in biological warfare so that defensive measures can be taken. The biochip implants system consists of two components: a transponder and a reader or scanner. The transponder is the actual biochip implant.

The biochip system is radio frequency identification RFID system, using low-frequency radio signals to communicate between the biochip and reader. The reading range or activation range, between reader and biochip is small, normally between 2 and 12 inches. It is a passive transponder, meaning it contains no battery or energy of its own.

In comparison, an active transponder would provide its own energy source, normally a small battery. Because the passive contains no battery, or nothing to wear out, it has a very long life up to 99 years, and no maintenance. Being passive, it is inactive until the reader activates it by sending it a low-power electrical charge. The reader reads or scans the implanted biochip and receives back data in this case an identification number from the biochips.

The communication between biochip and reader is via low-frequency radio waves. Since the communication is via very low frequency radio waves it is nit at all harmful to the human body. The biochip-transponder consists of four parts; computer microchip, antenna coil, capacitor and the glass capsule.

The microchip stores a unique identification number from 10 to 15 digits long. The storage capacity of the current microchips is limited, capable of storing only a single ID number. AVID American Veterinary Identification Devices , claims their chips, using a nnn-nnn-nnn format, has the capability of over 70 trillion unique numbers.

Once the number is encoded it is impossible to alter. This is normally a simple, coil of copper wire around a ferrite or iron core. This tiny, primitive, radio antenna receives and sends signals from the reader or scanner.

It is a small capsule, the smallest measuring 11 mm in length and 2 mm in diameter, about the size of an uncooked grain of rice. The capsule is made of biocompatible material such as soda lime glass.

After assembly, the capsule is hermetically air-tight sealed, so no bodily fluids can touch the electronics inside. Because the glass is very smooth and susceptible to movement, a material such as a polypropylene polymer sheath is attached to one end of the capsule.

This sheath provides a compatible surface which the boldly tissue fibers bond or interconnect, resulting in a permanent placement of the biochip. The biochip is inserted into the subject with a hypodermic syringe. Injection is safe and simple, comparable to common vaccines.

Anesthesia is not required nor recommended. In dogs and cats, the biochip is usually injected behind the neck between the shoulder blades. This all takes place very fast, in milliseconds. The reader also contains the software and components to decode the received code and display the result in an LCD display. The reader can include a RS port to attach a computer. Biochips are not cheap, though the price is falling rapidly. Once all the human genes are well characterized and all functional human SNPs are known, manufacture of the chips could conceivably be standardized.

Then, prices for biochips, like the prices for computer memory chips, would fall through the floor. The reader must normally be between 2 and 12 inches near the biochip to communicate. The reader and biochip can communicate through most materials, except metal. Proteome analysis or Proteomics is the investigation of all the proteins present in a cell, tissue or organism.

Proteins, which are responsible for all biochemical work within a cell, are often the targets for development of new drugs. The use of Biochip facilitate:. Every living creature is made up of cells, the basic building blocks of life.. Cells are used widely by for several applications including study of drug cell interactions for drug discovery, as well as in biosensing.

Biodiagnostics or biosensing is the field of sensing biological molecules based on electrochemical, biochemical, optical, luminometric methods. The Protein chip is a micro-chip with its surface modified to detect various disease causing proteins simultaneously in order to help find a cure for them. Bio-chemical materials such as antibodies responding to proteins, receptors, and nucleic acids are to be fixed to separate and analyze protein. In their fight against cancer, doctors have just gained an impressive new weapon to add to their arsenal.

Researchers at the U. Department of Energy's Argonne. National Laboratory have developed a chip that can save lives by diagnosing certain cancers even before patients become symptomatic. The new technology, known as a biochip, consists of a one-centimeter by one centimeter array that comprises anywhere between several dozen and several hundred "dots," or small drops.

Each of these drops contains a unique protein, antibody or nucleic acid that will attach to a particular DNA sequence or antigen. A tumor, even in its earliest asymptomatic phases, can slough off proteins that find their way into a patient's circulatory system.

These proteins trigger the immune system to kick into gear, producing antibodies that regulate which proteins belong and which do not. You can look for similarities and differences in autoantibody profiles to look for clues and markers that provide early indicators of disease. In their hunt for cancer indicators, Eprogen uses a process called 2-dimesional protein fractionation, which sorts thousands of different proteins from cancer cells by both their electrical charge and their hydrophobicity or "stickiness.

The 2-D fractionation process creates separate protein fractions, which are then arranged in a single biochip containing well grids. Eprogen scientists then probe the microarrays with known serum or plasma "auto-antibodies" produced by the immune systems of cancer patients.

By using cancer patients' own auto-antibodies as a diagnostic tool, doctors could potentially tailor treatments based on their personal autoantibody profile. Chips that follow footsteps. Glucose level detectors. Oxy sensors. Brain surgery with an on-off switch. Adding sound to life. Experiments with lost sight. The civil liberties debate over biochips has obscured their more ethically benign and medically useful applications.

Medical researchers have been working to integrate chips and people for many years, often plucking devices from well known electronic appliances. Jeffry Hausdorff of the Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center in Boston has used the type of pressure sensitive resistors found in the buttons of a microwave oven as stride timers.

He places one sensor in the heel of a shoe, and one in the toe, adds a computer to the ankle to calculate the duration of each stride. But elderly patients prone to frequent falls have extremely variable stride times, a flag that could indicate the need for more strengthening exercises or a change in medication.

Hausdorff is also using the system to determine the success of a treatment for congestive heart failure. Diabetics currently use a skin prick and a handheld blood test, and then medicate themselves with the required amount of insulin. The system is simple and works well, but the need to draw blood means that most diabetics do not test themselves as often as they should.

The new S4MS chip will simply sit under the skin, sense the glucose level, and send the result back out by radio frequency communication. A light emitting diode starts off the detection process. The light that it produces hits a fluorescent chemical: one that absorbs the incoming light and re-emits it at a longer wavelength.

The longer wavelength of light is detected, and the result is send to a control panel outside the body. Glucose is detected because the sugar reduces the amount of light that a fluorescent chemical re-emits. The more glucose is there the less light that is detected. S4MS is still developing the perfect fluorescent chemical, but the key design innovation of the S4MS chip has been fully worked out.

The idea is simple: the LED is sitting in a sea of fluorescent molecules. In most detectors the light source is far away from the fluorescent molecules, and the inefficiencies that come with that mean more power and larger devices. The prototype S4MS chip uses a 22 microwatt LED, almost forty times less powerful than a tiny power-on buttons on a computer keyboard. The low power requirements mean that energy can be supplied from outside, by a process called induction.

The fluorescent detection itself does not consume any chemicals or proteins, so the device is self sustaining. A working model of an oxy sensor uses the same layout.

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Download the Full Report for Biochips. Most of us won? That would be a major loss of privacy. But there is a flip side to this! Such biochips could help agencies to locate lost children, downed soldiers and wandering Alzheimer? The human body is the next big target of chipmakers. It won?

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A biochip is a collection of miniaturized test sites micro arrays arranged on a solid substrate that permits many tests to be performed at the same time in order to get higher throughput and speed. Typically, a biochip's surface area is not longer than a fingernail. Like a computer chip that can perform millions of mathematical operation in one second, a biochip can perform thousands of biological operations, such as decoding genes, in a few seconds. A genetic biochip is designed to "freeze" into place the structures of many short strands of DNA deoxyribonucleic acid , the basic chemical instruction that determines the characteristics of an organism. Effectively, it is used as a kind of "test tube" for real chemical samples. The biochip implants system consists of two components: a transponder and a reader or scanner.

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